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Crayford Temple Grove

Science

Science

Science Vision

At Haberdashers' Crayford Primary, we want for our children to develop a greater awareness, interest, and knowledge of the universe as well as their place in it. We believe that a strong scientific education is fundamental to their understanding of how things work and how they are inter-connected. By teaching through the strands of biology, chemistry and physics, largely following the National Curriculum, we are providing children with a broad knowledge base on which to build future learning.  

Science has shaped our world and, by teaching them to think like scientists, we are equipping our children to shape the future. We want our children to be curious and ask questions. By explicitly teaching children the specific types of scientific enquiry, we are giving them the confidence to make informed decisions about the best way to attempt to find answers to those questions. We will also enable them to predict outcomes, explain phenomenon and become critical thinkers.  

Links to SMSC 

We believe that spiritual, moral, social and cultural education runs through everything we do. Science is no exception. Giving children multiple opportunities to investigate, fosters a natural curiosity and a sense of awe and wonder. Investigation stimulates children to ask questions, not just specific to the topic they are covering, but relating to the bigger picture too, such as the meaning of life and how we came to be. Learning safety rules and working in groups, helps children develop responsibility and ownership of their decisions and actions and by learning making links between science and the environment, children are better placed to make informed decisions about how to protect our planet and their place within it.  

Implementation 

At Haberdashers' Crayford Primary, teachers create a positive attitude to science learning within their classrooms and reinforce an expectation that all children are capable of achieving high standards in science regardless of gender, race or economic background. Our whole school approach to the teaching and learning of science involves the following;  

Science is taught discretely.  In this way, we can ensure that there is a clear progression of both knowledge and skills from EYFS to Year 6. Many topics are repeated and built upon to help pupils retain key facts in their long-term memories and extend their understanding as they develop.  

Knowledge organisers for each topic are utilized to provide children with crucial information, so that a greater proportion of the time can be spent on practical investigations.  

Each term we have an immersive science week where the children focus solely on scientific knowledge and skills. We believe that this enables children to get fully immersed in their learning and gives opportunities for them to see an investigation through from question to conclusion, where appropriate.  

Just as children are taught the specific vocabulary of grammar terminology in English, we believe that the types of scientific enquiry that children undertake (observations over time, pattern seeking, research, identifying and classifying and comparative and fair testing) should be made explicit to them. In this way, they can build up an arsenal of techniques to choose from when trying to answer both their own questions and questions set by others. We have built a range of opportunities for each type of enquiry across each year group.  

Although science is taught as a discrete subject, where possible, links are drawn between other subjects and topic areas and opportunities are given for our children to develop their understanding further through visits, visitors, links with secondary schools and by making extensive use of Forest School to enrich our curriculum. Through lessons, assemblies, and Science Week, stereotypes of what a scientist looks like are challenged and children are introduced to scientists from different cultural backgrounds and genders. 

Through targeted questioning, use of the knowledge organizer and formative assessment, teachers ensure that gaps in children’s learning can be addressed.  

Teachers are expected to create simple assessment documents with objectives for each unit and children are assessed both on their acquisition of knowledge and their scientific enquiry skills at the end of each unit. These records are kept centrally and can be accessed by senior leaders, the science lead and by future teachers so that future planning and any strategy to take the both subject, and individuals’ learning, forward, is informed. 

Impact 

  • Children will achieve at least age-related expectations in Science at the end of their cohort year.  
  • Children will retain knowledge that is pertinent to Science with a real- life context.  
  • Children will be able to question ideas and reflect on knowledge.  
  • Children will work collaboratively and practically to investigate and experiment.  
  • Children will be able to explain the processes they have undertaken and be able to reason scientifically. 
  • Children will have the confidence to ask questions and have the skills to try to answer these using relevant strategies. 
  • Children will enjoy science and look forward to future scientific learning. 
  • Children will realise that real-life scientists don’t conform to traditional stereotypes and that a career in STEM subjects is totally within their grasp. 

 

Science Overview

Science Overview 2022-2023

 

Autumn 1

Autumn 2

Spring 1

Spring 2

Summer 1

Summer 2

N 3-4

It’s getting cold outside/Bears

Weather where we live, habitats where bears live

 

Polar express /Special days

 

Melting and freezing; natural and artificial materials

 

On the Move/Toys

Exploring pushes, pulls and magnets

 

On the Farm/Food Glorious Food

Life cycles of farm animals and plants

Once upon a time 1/2

Properties of materials and exploring mixtures

All creatures great and small 1/2

Life cycles of animals in trop. rainforests, sea, and grasslands

 

Reception

 

 

 

Spring in our step

Wildlife and weather in spring and winter; habitats around our school

 

 

Science detectives

Properties of materials and habitats around the world

 

Year 1

CHEMISTRY

Everyday materials

Distinguishing objects from their material, and describing simple properties

 

BIOLOGY

Plants

Identifying and naming common plants and describing basic structures

 

 

 

 

BIOLOGY/PHYSICS

 

Seasonal changes

 

Observing changes across four seasons and describing associated weather

Consolidation and review

BIOLOGY

Animals

Naming reptiles, fish, amphibians, birds and mammals; carnivores, herbivores, omnivores

 

BIOLOGY

Humans

Human body parts and senses

 

Year 2

BIOLOGY

Plant growth

Plants grow from seeds, and require water, light and a suitable temperature

 

BIOLOGY

 

Needs of animals

 

Animals need water, food and air to survive and to have offspring

 

CHEMISTRY

Uses of materials

Comparisons of an object’s material with its use; impact of bending, twisting on solid objects

 

BIOLOGY

Living things & habitats

Introduction to habitats, micro-habitats, and simple food chains

 

CHEMISTRY

Solids, liquids and gases

How the same substances can exist as solids, liquids and gases

 

Consolidation and review

Year 3

CHEMISTRY

Rocks

Comparisons of types of rocks and how fossils are formed

 PHYSICS

Light

Relationship between light and how we see; the formation of shadows

 

BIOLOGY

Organisms

The role of muscles and skeletons; the importance of nutrients

 

BIOLOGY

Plants

Features of flowering plants and what they need to survive

 

PHYSICS

Forces & motion

Introducing pushes and pulls; opposing forces, and balanced forces

 

PHYSICS

Magnetism

Contact and non-contact forces, including friction and magnetism

Year 4

BIOLOGY

Classifying organisms

Introduction to classifying animals and their environment

BIOLOGY

Food & digestion

The human digestive system and simple food chains 

CHEMISTRY

Particle model and states of matter

States of matter in relation to particle arrangement

 PHYSICS

Sounds

Relationship between strength of vibrations and volume of sound

PHYSICS

Electricity

Simple series circuits

 

CHEMISTRY

Properties of materials

Considering physical and chemical properties

Year 5

CHEMISTRY

Separating mixtures

Identifying and separating mixtures; reversible and non-reversible changes

BIO/CHEM/PHYSICS

Energy

Introducing the concept of energy stores and energy transfers; relate this to prior knowledge

BIOLOGY

Life cycles

Life cycles of a mammal, amphibian, insect, bird, and some reproduction processes

BIOLOGY

Human development

Human development to old age

 

PHYSICS

Forces

Gravity, air and water resistance and friction; introduction to pulleys

PHYSICS

Earth and space

Movements of planets and the Moon, and relationship to day and night

Year 6

PHYSICS

Electricity

Investigating variations in series and parallel circuits, and how electricity is generated

 

BIOLOGY

Evolution

Fossils; introduction to the idea that adaptation may lead to evolution

 

PHYSICS

Light

How light travels and is reflected, and how this allows us to see

 

BIOLOGY

Further classification

Further classification of organisms based on characteristics

 

BIOLOGY

Functions of the human body

Human circulatory system; transport of nutrients within the body

 

CHEMISTRY

Physical and chemical changes

Identifying physical and chemical changes

Science Progression Map

 

Nursery 3-4

Autumn 1

Building on prior understanding

Pupils should be exposed to

How knowledge will be built upon

Substantive

•       Identify appropriate clothes to go outside in different types of weather

•       Some animals, like bears, hibernate in the winter

•       Types of weather include sunny, rainy, windy, snowy

•       We see puddles when it's rainy, shadows during the day and rainbows when there is sunshine and rain

•       Habitats are the places that living things live

•       Different animals live in different habitats

•       Feel, hear, smell and see natural materials of grass, mud, water, rock and sand

•       There are differences in the wildlife we see and the weather in spring and winter (Rec Spr2)

•       Examples of weather include sunny, rainy, windy, warm, cold, cloudy, drizzle, snow, stormy (with thunder and lightning) (Y2)

•       Evaporation and condensation; water cycle (Y4)

Disciplinary

•       M&O: Measure and observe using senses

•       M&O: Make systematic observations of an object (Y2)

VCs

•       5: We experience different types of weather in different seasons

•       8: There is a wide variety of living things, including plants and animals

•       5: The weather can change rapidly. Different seasons have different weather patterns (Y1)

•       8: Organisms are adapted to their environment. If conditions in a habitat change, organisms may not be able to survive (Y2)

 

Autumn 2

Building on prior understanding

Pupils should be exposed to

How knowledge will be built upon

Substantive

•       Melting and freezing can be observed in the world around us

•       Some materials float and some materials sink in water

•       Materials can be artificial (man-made) or natural

•       Some materials are hard whilst others are soft, some can be described as rough whilst others are smooth, and some are dull whilst others are shiny (N3-4 Sum1)

Disciplinary

•       M&O: Measure/observe using senses (N3-4 Aut1)

•       A&P: Ask questions and make predictions about what will happen when something is tried

•       A&P: Make a prediction based on substantive knowledge (Y2)

VCs

•       1: The same substance (water) can look different when it is hot or cold (ice)

•       1: All the ‘stuff’ encountered in everyday life, including air, water and different kinds of solid substances is called matter (Y2)

 

Spring 1

Building on prior understanding

Pupils should be exposed to

How knowledge will be built upon

Substantive

•       Materials can be artificial (man-made) or natural (N3-4 Aut2)

•       Some materials float and some materials sink in water (N3-4 Aut2)

•       How slow/fast a vehicle moves along a track depends on how hard/gently it is pushed/pulled, how steep the slope is, or whether there is an obstacle in its way.

•       How slow/fast a boat moves across the water depends on how hard/gently we blow at them through straws

•       Trains (and other vehicles) can be powered by steam, diesel or electricity.

•       Materials include plastic, wood, and fabric

•       Magnetic materials are attracted to magnets

•       Magnets can repel or attract each other, depending on which way they are held to each other

•       Common materials include wood, paper, metal, glass, plastic, water, rock and fabric (Y1)

•       Forces are pushes or pulls or twists (Y3)

•       Forces can cause a change in speed, direction or shape of an object (Y3)

•       Magnetism is the force exerted by magnets when they attract or repel each other (Y3)

Disciplinary

•       M&O: Measure/observe using senses (N3-4 Aut1)

•       A&P: Ask questions and make predictions about what will happen when something is tried (N3-4 Aut2)

•       R&P: Use hoops to classify objects based on simple criteria

•       R&P: Use a table, Carroll diagram, Venn diagram to classify items based on properties (Y1)

VCs

•       2: Magnets can attract or repel other magnets

•       2: Magnets attract magnetic objects

•       3: We can push and pull objects to make them move

•       4: We have to push or pull objects to make them move

•       2: The non-contact force of magnetism mean magnets can attract or repel other magnets (Y3)

•       3: Forces can push, pull or twist objects, making them change shape or motion (Y3)

•       3: Things can only change their motion if there is a net force acting on them (Y3)

•       3: When forces acting on an object are not equal and opposite in direction, they are unbalanced and will change an object’s speed, direction or shape (Y3)

 

Spring 2

Building on prior understanding

Pupils should be exposed to

How knowledge will be built upon

Substantive

•       Chicks hatch from eggs and grow into chickens

•       Calves grow to become cows, lamb grow to become sheep, piglets grow to become pigs, foals grow to become horses, ducklings grow to become ducks

•       Parents and their young animals look similar and different

•       Plants need water and light to grow

•       Young and adult animals in grassland, tropical rainforest and saltwater habitats (N3-4 Sum2)

•       Animals can be grouped into fish, amphibians, reptiles, birds and mammals (name common examples) (Y1)

•       Plants need water, light and a suitable temperature to grow (Y2)

•       Animals, including humans, reproduce. This means they have offspring that grow into adults (Y2)

•       As animals grow they get bigger (Y2)

•       Some animals change during their life cycle as the mature (e.g. tadpole to frog) (Y2)

Disciplinary

•       M&O: Measure/observe using senses (N3-4 Aut1)

•       A&P: Ask questions and make predictions about what will happen when something is tried (N3-4 Aut2)

Plant a bean. Observe its stages of growth and care for it

•       M&O: Observe using a magnifying glass safely

•       M&O: Make systematic observations of an object (Y2)

VCs

•       8: There is a wide variety of living things, including plants and animals (N3-4)

•       9: Young animals grow into adult animals

•       9: Plants and animals reproduce (have offspring) (Y2)

 

Summer 1

Building on prior understanding

Pupils should be exposed to

How knowledge will be built upon

Substantive

•       We need to mix materials in the right amount to bake a tasty cake

•       Some materials will dissolve in water

•       Some materials are hard whilst others are soft, some can be described as rough whilst others are smooth, and some are dull whilst others are shiny

•       Clothes get heavier when they get wet, because we carry the clothes and the water

•       All materials are made of a single substance or a mixture of substances (Y2)

•       A solvent is a liquid that is used to dissolve other substances. A soluble substance that dissolves in a solvent is a called a solute. An insoluble substance is one that will not dissolve in a solvent. When a solute dissolves in a solvent, a solution is formed. A solution is a mixture. When no more solute can dissolve in the solvent, the solution is saturated. Solutes dissolve more quickly when the particles have more energy (i.e. when heated or stirred) (Y5)

Disciplinary

•       R&P: Use hoops to classify objects based on simple criteria (N3-4 Spr1)

•       A&P: Ask questions and make predictions about what will happen when something is tried (N3-4 Aut2)

VCs

•       1: The same substance (water) can look different when it is hot or cold (ice) (N3-4 Aut2)

 

Summer 2

Building on prior understanding

Pupils should be exposed to

How knowledge will be built upon

Substantive

•       Parents and their young animals look similar and different (N3-4 Spr1)

•       It is important to wear sun cream and sun hats when it is sunny

•       Many fish develop from eggs, larvae, fry, to adults

•       Many animals live in water, like turtles, orcas, dolphins, manta rays, sharks, seahorses and jellyfish

•       Young turtles are called hatchlings, young orcas and dolphins are called calves, young manta rays are called pups, and young sea horses and jellyfish are larvae and then fry

•       The Serengeti is a grassland, with habitats home to animals like zebras, lions, giraffes, hippos, vultures, snakes, toads and scorpions

•       Young zebras are called foals, young vultures are called chicks, young lions are called cubs, young giraffes and hippos are called calves, young snakes are called snakelets, young toads are called tadpoles and young scorpions are known as scorplings

•       Animals, including humans, reproduce. This means they have offspring that grow into adults (Y2)

•       As animals grow they get bigger (Y2)

•       Some animals change during their life cycle as the mature (e.g. tadpole to frog) (Y2)

•       Light from the sun can be dangerous and there are ways to protect our eyes and skin (Y3)

DK

•       M&O: Measure/observe using senses (N3-4 Aut1)

•       A&P: Ask questions and make predictions about what will happen when something is tried (N3-4 Aut2)

VCs

•       8: There is a wide variety of living things, including plants and animals (N3-4)

•       9: Young animals grow into adult animals (N3-4)

•       10: There are many different kinds of plants and animals in the world today (N3-4)

•       8: Organisms are adapted to their environment. If conditions in a habitat change, organisms may not be able to survive (Y2)

•       9: Plants and animals reproduce (have offspring) (Y2)

 

Reception

Spring 2

Building on prior understanding

Pupils should be exposed to

How knowledge will be built upon

Substantive

•       Habitats are the places that living things live (N3-4 Aut1)

•       There are differences in the wildlife we see and the weather in spring and winter

•       Insects like ants, bees, and ladybirds are animals

•       Spiders and insects live in the habitats around our school

•       Some plants have flowers

•       The basic parts of a plant are leaves, flowers, roots, stem/trunk/branch (Y1)

•       There are four seasons: spring, summer, autumn and winter (Y1)

•       The weather changes gradually as we move from season to season (Y1)

•       Some animals can be grouped into fish, amphibians, reptiles, birds and mammals (name common examples) (Y1)

•       Invertebrates can be grouped based on their characteristics as snails and slugs; worms; spiders and insects (Y4)

DK

•       M&O: Measure/observe using senses (N3-4 Aut1)

•       A&E: Notice patterns in the world around me

•       A&E: Make simple statements about the results of an enquiry (Y1)

VCs

•       8: There is a wide variety of living things, including plants and animals (N3-4)

•       9: Young animals grow into adult animals (N3-4)

•       10: There are many different kinds of plants and animals in the world today (N3-4)

•       8: Organisms are adapted to their environment. If conditions in a habitat change, organisms may not be able to survive (Y2)

•       9: Plants and animals reproduce (have offspring) (Y2)

 

Summer 2

Building on prior understanding

Pupils should be exposed to

How knowledge will be built upon

Substantive

•       Fruits like apples, bananas, peaches and oranges have skins, flesh and seeds

•       [A range of scientific themes, dependent on schools’ context]

Disciplinary

•       Ask questions and explore scientific themes more independently

VCs

 

Year 1

Autumn 1

Required prior knowledge

Knowledge to be explicitly taught

How knowledge will be built upon

Substantive

•       Feel, hear, smell and see natural materials of grass, mud, water, rock and sand (N3-4 Aut1)

•       Materials can be artificial (man-made) or natural (N3-4 Aut1)

•       Materials include plastic, wood, and fabric (N3-4 Aut1)

•       Some materials are hard whilst others are soft, some can be described as rough whilst others are smooth, and some are dull whilst others are shiny (N3-4 Aut1)

•       An object is a ‘thing’ that can be seen and touched

•       Objects have a name and often have a purpose. For example a cup is the object, and its purpose is for drinking from.

•       The material is what an object is made of, for example a cup can be made of paper or plastic

•       Common materials include wood, paper, metal, glass, plastic, water, rock and fabric

•       Materials have different physical properties, some materials are hard whilst others are soft, some can be described as rough whilst others are smooth, some are dull whereas others are shiny.

•       Materials can be grouped in a number of ways based on their physical properties

•       The material that we choose to make an object from depends on its purpose (e.g. no chocolate kettle)

•       Materials have physical properties that make them better or worse for certain uses, such as waterproof, absorbent, windproof, heatproof, malleable (r2 Spr)

•       Materials such as wood, metal, plastic, brick, rock, paper and cardboard have these physical properties to different extents

•       Different combinations of materials could be used to create different object, including a wall, a mop and a saucepan

Disciplinary

•       Use a table to classify items based on properties

Sort materials into a Carroll diagram based on their characteristics

•       A&P: Scientists group objects or living things based on their properties

•       R&P: Use a Carroll diagram to classify items based on properties

Find the best material for a dog bed (waterproof and soft)

•       A&E: Make simple statements about the results of an enquiry

•       A&P: The thing that we measure is called the dependent variable; the thing we change is the independent variable (Y3)

VCs

•       4: Things around us can be made to change or happen. We can pull objects behind us or push them across the table

•       4: All living things need food to give them energy (Y2)

•       4: The arrows in a food chain show where energy is being transferred from and to (Y2)

 

Autumn 2

Required prior knowledge

Knowledge to be explicitly taught

How knowledge will be built upon

Substantive

•       There are differences in the wildlife we see and the weather in spring and winter (Rec Spr2)

•       Some plants have flowers (Rec Spr2)

•       A plant is a living thing that usually grows in one place

•       Coniferous plants keep their leaves all year round (e.g. pine, yew, juniper in UK)

•       Deciduous plants lose their leaves in winter (e.g. oak, silver birch, horse chestnut, sycamore, ash)

•       Trees are a type of plant that have a tall stem made of wood

•       The basic parts of a plant are leaves, flowers, roots, stem/trunk/branch

•       Plant growth from germination (Y2)

•       Requirements for plant life (Y2, Y3)

•       Purpose of leaves, stem/trunk, roots and flowers (Y3)

•       Coniferous trees transport their seeds in cones; deciduous trees use seeds and flowers/fruit (Yr3)

•       Classifying plants (Y4)

Disciplinary

•       M&O: Measure/observe using senses (N3-4)

•       R&P: Use hoops to classify objects based on simple criteria (N3-4)

Draw and label a scientific diagram of a plant

•       R&P: Draw a diagram, a simple scientific drawing that explains or informs

Classify trees as deciduous or coniferous using images of them at different times in the year

•       R&P: Use a table to classify items based on properties

•       R&P: Use Carroll diagrams (Y1) Venn diagrams (Y1), and a pair of axes (Y2) to classify items based on properties

VCs

•       5: Plants grow in soil

•       8: There is a wide variety of living things

•       10: There are many different kinds of plants and animals in the world today.

•       5: Much of the solid surface of the Earth is covered in soil, which is a mixture of pieces of rock of various sizes and the remains of organisms. Some soil also contains air, water and some nutrients (Y3)

 

Spring 1

Required prior knowledge

Knowledge to be explicitly taught

How knowledge will be built upon

Substantive

•       Types of weather include sunny, rainy, windy and snowy (N3-4 Aut1)

•       Identify appropriate clothes to go outside in different types of weather (N3-4 Aut1)

•       Some animals, like bears, hibernate in the winter (N3-4 Aut1)

•       There are differences in the wildlife we see and the weather in spring and winter (Rec Spr2)

•       Coniferous plants keep their leaves all year round (e.g. pine, yew, juniper in UK) (Y1)

•       Deciduous plants lose their leaves in winter (e.g. oak, silver birch, horse chestnut, sycamore, ash) (Y1)

•       Geography: We live on the Earth (Y1 Aut)

•       There are four seasons: spring, summer, autumn and winter

•       The weather changes gradually as we move from season to season

•       The weather can change rapidly in one day (e.g. sunny morning and rainy afternoon)

•       Recognise differences between four seasons in terms of living things (trees lose leaves; flowers drop and we see different animals, such as butterflies in the summer)

•       Daytime is when the Earth is facing the Sun; nighttime is when the Earth is facing away from the Sun

•       In the summer that there are more hours of daylight and in winter there are fewer hours of daylight

•       In the summer, we face the sun for more of the day and so it is lighter/darker when we travel to school in summer/winter

•       The Moon is more visible at night

•       Geography: Observing weather patterns (Y2)

•       Earth rotates in 24 hours, meaning that only half of the Earth is facing the Sun at any one time; this creates night and day (Y5)

•       The Moon orbits the Earth in 28 days and, during this time, the sun shines on different parts (Y5)

•       Seasons are caused by the Earth’s tilt (KS3)

Disciplinary

Use information from images of four seasons to identify and record differences in wildlife and weather in four seasons

•       A&P: Scientists look for patterns in the world around them

•       M&O: Gather information from text/books/images

•       R&P: Record numerical or descriptive observations in a table

•       A&P: Scientists look for patterns in data to try to identify correlations (Y5)

•       M&O: Gather information from the internet (Y3)

VCs

•       5: The weather can change rapidly. Different seasons have different weather patterns

•       6: Daytime is when the Earth is facing the Sun; nighttime is when the Earth is facing away from the Sun.

•       5: The air is all around us on Earth (Y2)

•       5: Weather is determined by conditions of the air. The temperature, pressure, direction and speed of the movement and the amount of water vapour in the air combine to create the weather (KS3)

•       6: The Moon reflects light from the Sun (Y3)

Spring 2 – Consolidation and review

Summer 1

Required prior knowledge

Knowledge to be explicitly taught

How knowledge will be built upon

Substantive

•       A plant is a living thing that usually grows in one place (Y1)

•       Coniferous plants keep their leaves all year round (e.g. pine, yew, juniper in UK) (Y1)

•       Deciduous plants lose their leaves in winter (e.g. oak, silver birch, horse chestnut, sycamore, ash) (Y1)

•       Animals are different to plants because they usually move around, rather than stay in the same place

•       Animals can be placed into different groups (carnivores, herbivores and omnivores) based the foods they eat.

•       Animals have different features, including fins, wings, scales, legs, feathers, claws, paws etc.

•       Some animals can be grouped into fish, amphibians, reptiles, birds and mammals (name common examples)

•       Classification refers to a method used to place all living things into groups.(Yr4)

•       Organisms can be classified in a number of ways

•       A species is a group of one type of organism, individuals in this group can breed with each other to produce offspring that can go on to breed(Yr4)

•       Early classification from Aristotle placed animals into groups based on land, water and air, plants were grouped according to size, small, medium and large(Yr4)

•       Fish, amphibians, reptiles, birds and mammals are all vertebrates (Yr4)

•       Vertebrates have endoskeletons (Yr4)

•       Vertebrates can be grouped in a number of ways based on their characteristics, e.g. warm/cold blooded; or physical features like fur, beak, wings etc.(Yr4)

•       Invertebrates can be grouped based on their characteristics as snails and slugs; worms; spiders and insects (Yr4)

Disciplinary

•       A&P: Scientists group objects or living things based on their properties (Y1)

•       M&O: Gather information from text/books/images (Y1)

•       R&P: Use a Carroll diagram to classify items based on properties (Y1)

Research different animals and use images and text to classify the animals as herbivores, carnivores or omnivores, and based on their physical characteristics

•       A&P: Scientists conduct secondary research to learn from what other scientists have already learned

•       R&P: Use a Venn diagram to classify items into two or three sets based on properties

•       A&E: Science is never 'complete' and scientists are always working to make models more accurate or to discover new explanations (Y5)

VCs

•       8: There is a wide variety of living things, including plants and animals

•       8: Plants and animals are dependent on each other (Y2)

 

 

Summer 2

Required prior knowledge

Knowledge to be explicitly taught

How knowledge will be built upon

Substantive

•       Animals can be grouped into fish, amphibians, reptiles, birds and mammals (name common examples) (Y1)

•       Animals can be placed into different groups (carnivores, herbivores and omnivores) based the foods they eat (Y1)

•       Materials have different physical properties, some materials are hard whilst others are soft, some can be described as rough whilst others are smooth, some are dull whereas others are shiny. (Y1)

•       Humans are omnivores, but some choose to eat only plants

•       Humans are made of many different body parts including head, neck, back, ears, eyes, nose, mouth, arms, shoulders, elbows, hands, fingers,  legs, knees, feet, toes, face

•       Humans have five senses, smell, taste, touch, sight and hearing.

•       The five senses are each associated with different body parts (eyes, ears, nose, tongue)

•       The main food groups are carbohydrates (starch and sugars), proteins, fats, dairy, fruit and vegetables (Y3)

•       Humans need a balanced diet which is made of main food groups (Y3)

•       Our skeleton is made up of bones that grow as we grow (Y3)

•       Humans and some other animals have skeletons (Y3)

•       Organs are parts of the body that do a particular job, the heart pumps blood around the body and the lungs are used for breathing which gets air into your body. (Y3)

•       The skeleton protects organs, e.g. the skull protects the brain; and the ribcage protects the lungs, heart and other important organs (Y3)

•       The skeleton supports the body, e.g. the spine helps the body stand (Y3)

•       The skeleton helps the body move, e.g. pelvis and knee joints (Y3)

•       The muscles and skeleton are required to help the body move. When muscles contract they pull the bone (Y3)

•       Different animals hear different sounds (Y4)

•       Humans’ hearing changes as we age (Y4)

•       Sounds are made when objects vibrate. Vibrations travel through a medium (e.g. air, water) to the ear. Vibrations enter the ear, our inner ear vibrates and we hear them as sound. (Y4)

•       The eye is made of many parts: the pupil is the circular black hole in the center of the eye, the iris is the coloured part of the eye that surrounds the pupil, and the lens is a structure found behind the pupil. The pupils allow light to enter the eye. The iris controls how much light enters the eye by changing the size of the pupil. The lens helps to focus the light rays entering the eye (Y6)

•       Many problems with our vision are caused by parts of the eye that are the not the right shape or size, or that have become cloudy.  Many of these problems can be corrected through surgery or prescription glasses. People living with sight loss or blindness may use long canes or guide dogs when outside, talking books or Braille, and different devices in the home (Y6)

DK

•       Draw a diagram, a simple scientific drawing that explains or informs (Y1)

Draw a scientific diagram, labelling key human body parts

VCs

•       7: Living things, including humans, react to their surroundings with their senses

•       7: Living things grow, need, water, air and food, react to their surroundings, move, get rid of their waste, reproduce (Y2)

 

Year 2

Autumn 1

Required prior knowledge

Knowledge to be explicitly taught

How knowledge will be built upon

Substantive

•       Plants need water and light to grow (N3-4 Spr2)

•       The basic parts of a plant are leaves, flowers, roots, stem/trunk/branch (Y1)

•       Plants are classed as living things because they grow, move, reproduce, and need nutrition (food) (Y1)

•       A seed is living

•       A seed is the embryonic stage of the plant life cycle.

•       A seed consists of three parts, the seed coat, the endosperm and the embryo

•       Germination is the development of a plant from a seed. During germination roots and shoots emerge and grow

•       To germinate a seed needs water and a certain temperature

•       Temperature is a measure of how hot or cold something is

•       Some plants grow from bulbs. A bulb is a resting stage for certain plants. They have a large underground food store, short stems and fleshy leaves.

•       When a plant grows it gets bigger.

•       Plants need water, light and a suitable temperature to grow

•       Many plants make fruits or vegetables; some of these grow below ground

•       The four main stages of the plant's life cycle include germination, pollination, fertilisation and seed dispersal (Y3)

•       Pollination and fertilisation usually takes place in flowers. Dispersal is important to make sure there is enough space for seeds to germinate and plants to grow.(Y3)

•       Seeds can be dispersed in a variety of ways (Y3)

•       Plants need air (oxygen and carbon dioxide), water, light, nutrients from the soil, space, and a suitable temperature to grow (Y3)

•       Requirements for life vary from plant to plant and they adapt to their environment (e.g. some plants need less space, a lower temperature, fewer nutrients etc.) (Y3)

•       Roots absorb nutrients from the soil and help anchor the plant (Y3)

•       The stem/trunk supports the plant and transports water up the plant. The xylem transports water and nutrients from the roots, and the phloem transports food from the leaves to the all parts of the plant (Y3)

•       Leaves use sunlight, carbon dioxide from the air and water to make their own food (Y3)

Disciplinary

•       Maths: Use words to describe lengths and heights (Y1)

•       A&P: Ask questions and make predictions about what will happen when something is tried (N3-4, Aut2)

•       M&O: Measure/observe using senses (N3-4, Aut2)

•       R&P: Record numerical or descriptive observations in a table (Y1)

•       A&E: Make simple statements about the results of an enquiry (Y1)

Investigate the conditions required for germination

•       A&P: Make a prediction based on substantive knowledge

•       A&P: It is important that we keep as much as we can the same, apart from the thing we measure and the one thing we change

Investigate how light affects the growth of plants

•       M&O: Make systematic observations of an object

•       Explain findings using scientific knowledge (Y3)

•       The thing that we measure is called the dependent variable; the thing we change is the independent variable (Y3)

VCs

•       9: Plants and animals reproduce (have offspring)

•       9: Organisms produce offspring of the same kind, but in many cases offspring are not identical with each other or with their parents (Y5)

 

Autumn 2

Required prior knowledge

Knowledge to be explicitly taught

How knowledge will be built upon

Substantive

•       Talk about how they have changed from being a baby (N3-4 Aut1)

•       Habitats are the places that living things live and different animals live in different habitats (N3-4 Aut1)

•       Parents and their young look similar and different to each other (N3-4 Spr2)

•       Names of animals and their young (e.g. calves and cow, lamb and sheep) (N3-4)

•       Animals can be grouped into fish, amphibians, reptiles, birds and mammals (name common examples) (Y1)

•       Temperature is a measure of how hot or cold something is (Y2 Aut)

•       Plants need water, light and a suitable temperature to grow (Y2)

•       Plants are classed as living things because they grow, move, reproduce, and need nutrition (food) (Y1)

•       Animals, including humans, need food to survive

•       Animals, including humans, need water and oxygen to survive

•       Animals, including humans, the right temperature to survive

•       Animals, including humans, reproduce. This means they have offspring that grow into adults

•       As animals grow they get bigger.

•       Some animals change during their life cycle as the mature (e.g. tadpole to frog)

•       Humans need exercise to stay healthy

•       Humans need to eat a healthy and balanced diet

•       Humans need to practice hygiene to stay healthy

•       Life cycles of hedgehogs, peregrine falcons, frog and ladybird, including metamorphosis (Y5)

•       Living things grow, need air and nutrients, react to their surroundings, move, get rid of their waste, reproduce (Y2)

•       Living things are adapted to their environment. This means they may not be able to survive in other habitats (Y2)

•       The main food groups are carbohydrates (starch and sugars), proteins, fats, dairy, fruit and vegetables (Yr3)

•       Humans need a balanced diet which is made of main food groups (Y2)

•       Vitamins, minerals and fibre are needed and being deficient in these causes diseases (Y2)

•       Different animals have different nutritional needs (Y2)

Disciplinary

•       A&P: Scientists conduct secondary research to learn from what other scientists have already learned (Y1)

•       A&P: Scientists group objects or living things based on their properties (Y1)

•       M&O: Gather information from text/books/images (Y1)

•       R&P: Use a Carroll diagram to classify items based on properties (Y1)

Gather information from images and/or text and group animals into those that change form as they grow and those that do not.

•       Using and drawing a classification key to classify organisms (Y4)

VCs

•       7: Living things, including humans, react to their surroundings with their senses (Y1)

•       9: Plants and animals reproduce (have offspring) (Y1)

•       5: The air is all around us on Earth

•       7: Living things grow, need, water, air and food, react to their surroundings, move, get rid of their waste, reproduce

•       8: All living things need energy for food, as well as air, water and certain temperature conditions.

•       5: There is less and less air further away from the Earth’s surface; space is a vacuum (Y5)

•       7: Living things need water, air, food, a way of getting rid of water and an environment that stays within a particular temperature range (Y3)

 

Spring 1

Required prior knowledge

Knowledge to be explicitly taught

How knowledge will be built upon

Substantive

•       Materials can be artificial (man-made) or natural (N3-4)

•       An object is a ‘thing’ that can be seen and touched (Y1)

•       Objects have a name and often have a purpose for example a cup is the object and its purpose is for drinking from.(Y1)

•       The material is what an object is made of, for example a cup can be made of paper or plastic. Common materials include wood, paper, metal, glass, water, rock (Y1)

•       Materials have different physical properties, some materials are hard whilst others are soft, some can be described as rough whilst others are smooth, some are dull whereas others are shiny. (Y1)

•       Materials can be grouped in a number of ways based on their physical properties (Y1)

•       The material that we choose to make an object from depends on its purpose (e.g. no chocolate kettle) (Y1)

•       Matter is all the 'stuff' that we experience in everyday life, including air, water, tables and us!

•       Materials have different physical properties such as malleable, waterproof, heatproof, windproof and absorbent.

•       These physical properties make the materials more suitable for certain uses

•       Everyday materials such as wood, metal, plastic, brick, rock, paper and cardboard have these physical properties but to different extents

•       Different combinations of materials can be used to create different objects, for example a saucepan or a mop.

•       The shape of some solid objects made from some materials can be changed by squashing, bending, twisting or stretching the material.

•       There are three states of matter: solid, liquid and gas (Y2)

•       Physical properties include being malleable, windproof, hard/soft, opaque/transparent, magnetic, electrical conductivity, thermal conductivity, and boiling and melting points (Y5)

•       Chemical properties are properties that scientists need specialist equipment to measure (Y5)

Disciplinary

•       A&P: It is important that we keep as much as we can the same, apart from the thing we measure and the one thing we change (Y2 Aut)

•       M&O: Make systematic observations of an object (Y2 Aut)

•       R&P: Use a Carroll diagram to classify items based on properties (Y1 Spr)

•       A&E: Make simple statements about the results of an enquiry (Y1 Spr)

Classify materials based on the extent of its properties by using a pair of axes

•       R&P: Use a pair of axes to classify items based on the extent to which it displays two properties

Investigate the best material to use to make an umbrella that is waterproof and windproof

•       A&P: There are four main stages of enquiry (A&P, M&O, R&P, A&E)

•       A&P: Scientists identify potential hazards in their experiments and plan ways to reduce them

•       A&E: Ask further questions that could be explored to extend findings

VCs

•       1: All the ‘stuff’ encountered in everyday life, including air, water and different kinds of solid substances is called matter

•       1: Different materials are recognisable by their properties

•       1: The amount of material does not change when a solid melts or a liquid evaporates (Y4)

•       1: If a material could be divided into smaller and smaller pieces it would be found to be made of pieces, particles, smaller than can be seen even with a microscope. These particles are not in a material; they are the material (Y4)

 

Spring 2

Required prior knowledge

Knowledge to be explicitly taught

How knowledge will be built upon

Substantive

•       Animals can be placed into groups (carnivores, herbivores and omnivores) based on the foods they eat (Y1)

•       Geography: Deserts are places where there is very little precipitation (Y2)

•       Geography: Hot deserts have a very hot and dry climate (Y2)

•       Geography: Cold deserts have a very cold and dry climate (Y2)

•       Temperature is a measure of how hot or cold something is (Y2)

•       Plants need water, light and a suitable temperature to grow (Y2)

•       Animals, including humans, need food, water, oxygen and the right temperature to survive (Y2)

•       Everything in the world can be categorised as either alive, used to be alive or has never been alive.

•       Living things are called organisms

•       Living things move, reproduce, are sensitive to their surroundings, grow, need oxygen, get rid of their waste, and need nutrition (MRS GOWN)

•       Animals move from place to place, while plants move on the spot

•       Habitats are the places that living things live,  a very small habitat is called a micro-habitat, these can be found within larger habitats

•       Animals and plants in a habitat depend on each other e.g. for food or shelter

•       Animals get their food from plants and other animals, this food provides the energy animals need.

•       Most plants produce their own food and are called producers.

•       In a food chain, the arrows show where the energy is being transferred from and to

•       Living things are adapted to their environment. This means they may not be able to survive in other habitats

•       Some animals and plants are adapted to life in a hot desert: camels and cacti. Some animals and plants are adapted to life in a cold desert: Arctic fox, polar bear, penguin and shrubs

•       The main food groups are carbohydrates (starch and sugars), proteins, fats, dairy, fruit and vegetables. Humans need a balanced diet of these (Y3). Vitamins, minerals and fibre are needed and being deficient in these causes diseases (Y3)

•       Different animals have different nutritional needs (Y3)

•       A food chain starts with a producer (usually a plant) who can produce its own food. Organisms that eat producers are called consumers (Y4)

•       A predator hunts prey to eat (Y4)

•       A food web shows the transfer of energy between different organisms  (Y4)

•       An ecosystem is made up of all organisms living in an area and the non-living features of the environment (Y4)

•       Animals and plants need to digest food to transfer energy from it (Y4)

•       Geography: Adaptations of plants and animals in different climate zones, including tundra and hot desert (Y5)

•       These advantageous traits - adaptations - can be physiological, structural and behavioural (Y6)

Disciplinary

•       A&P: There are four main stages of enquiry (A&P, M&O, R&P, A&E) (Y2 Spr)

•       A&P: Scientists look for patterns in the world around them (Y1 Spr)

•       A&E: Make simple statements about the results of an enquiry (Y1 Spr)

Examine microhabitats using a magnifying glass and counting the number and type of organisms found in an area

•       A&P: Scientists conduct investigations to identify whether a pattern they think they've seen is really there

•       M&O: Observe using a magnifying glass safely

•       A&P: Scientists look for patterns in data to try to identify correlations (Y5)

VCs

•       4: Things around us can be made to change or happen. We can pull objects behind us or push them across the table (Y1)

•       4: All living things need food to give them energy

•       4: The arrows in a food chain show where energy is being transferred from and to

•       8: Most plants make their own food

•       8: Animals need food, which comes by eating plants (herbivores) or by eating animals (carnivores), which have eaten plants or other animals.

•       8: Plants and animals are dependent on each other.

•       8: Organisms are adapted to their environment. If conditions in a habitat change, organisms may not be able to survive.

•       4: The arrows in a food web show where energy is being transferred from and to (Y4)

•       8: Plants make their own food using sunlight, carbon dioxide and water (Y3)

•       8: Animals are ultimately dependent on plants for their survival (Y4)

•       8: The relationships among organisms can be represented as food chains and food webs. (Y4)

 

Summer 1

Required prior knowledge

Knowledge to be explicitly taught

How knowledge will be built upon

Substantive

•       Melting and freezing can be observed in the world around us (N3-4 Aut2)

•       An object is a ‘thing’ that can be seen and touched (Y1)

•       Objects have a name and often have a purpose for example a cup is the object and its purpose is for drinking from (Y1)

•       Matter is all the 'stuff' that we experience in everyday life, including air, water, tables and us! (Y2)

•       All materials are made of a single substance or a mixture of substances

•       Matter is what all ‘stuff’ is made from

•       There are three states of matter: solids, liquids and gases

•       Substances can exist as solids, liquids and gases

•       The three states of matter have different properties

•       Liquids take the shape of the container they are in, when you move the liquid into a different container the shape will change

•       Solids keep their shape unless a force is put on it. They will change their shape if you cut them or squash them.

•       Gases have no fixed shape or volume, they spread out to fill a container. If they are not in a container, they will keep spreading out

•       We can decide if a substance is in its solid, liquid or gaseous state by looking at its properties

•       One substance can exist in the different states, when the substance is in a different state it is still the same substance

•       The different substances in their different forms (solids, liquids and gases) are all made of particles (Y4)

•       The particles in the different states of matter are arranged differently (Y4)

•       Substances can change from one state of matter to another. Solids can change to become a liquid (melting), liquids can change to become a gas (evaporating), gases can change to become liquids (condensing) and liquids can change to become a solid (freezing) (Y4)

•       Materials change state at different temperatures, i.e. they have different melting and boiling points (Y4)

•       The water cycle relies on evaporation and condensation. Water is collected in the oceans from rivers; it evaporates and then condenses to form clouds; it then precipitates and the cycle begins again (Y4)

Disciplinary

•       A&P: Scientists group objects or living things based on their properties (Y1)

Classify different substances as solids, liquids or gases

VCs

•       1: All the ‘stuff’ encountered in everyday life, including air, water and different kinds of solid substances is called matter (Y1)

•       1: If a material could be divided into smaller and smaller pieces it would be found to be made of pieces, particles, smaller than can be seen even with a microscope. These particles are not in a material; they are the material (Y4)

 

Summer 2 – Consolidation and review

Year 3

Autumn 1

Required prior knowledge

Knowledge to be explicitly taught

How knowledge will be built upon

Substantive

•       Materials can be artificial (man-made) or natural (N3-4 Aut1)

•       Geography: We live on the Earth (Y1)

•       Materials have physical properties that make them better or worse for certain uses, such as waterproof, absorbent, windproof, heatproof, malleable (Y2)

•       Materials such as wood, metal, plastic, brick, rock, paper and cardboard have these physical properties to different extents (Y2)

•       Living things are called organisms (Y2)

•       Everything in the world is either living (or used to be living) or not-living (Y2)

•       A rock is a naturally occurring material which is made up of different minerals.

•       The Earth’s crust is it’s the outermost layer of our planet. It is made of rocks and minerals.

•       Natural rocks are either igneous, sedimentary or metamorphic

•       Man-made rocks, like concrete, are called anthropic rocks

•       Igneous rock is formed when magma cools down

•       Sedimentary rock is formed when layers of small sediments are compressed over a long period of time. Igneous rock can become sedimentary rock if it breaks down into small pieces and forms layers

•       Metamorphic rock is formed when igneous or sedimentary rock is put under lots of pressure

•       Different rocks have different properties, including permeable/impermeable

•       A fossil is physical evidence of an ancient plant or animal , this could be their preserved remains or other traces that they made when they were alive.

•       Trace fossils are not physical remains of living things they are indirect evidence of life, examples include imprints of, or a mark left by an organism such as a footprint, imprint of a feather or poo

•       Fossils are formed when a living thing or trace is buried under sediment. The remains break down slowly and as layers of sediment build up the layers are squashed, turning them into sedimentary rock

•       Fossils can form when dead organisms are frozen in ice or preserved in amber

•       Soil is a mixture of tiny pieces of rock, dead plants and animals, air and water. Different soils have different properties

•       History: Rocks that build historical monuments including Stonehenge and the Great Pyramid in Egypt (Y3)

•       History: Importance of fossils in archaeology (Y6)

•       Geography: Beneath the Earth’s solid crust is a hot later called the mantle (Y3)

•       Geography: Volcanic eruptions release magma (Y3)

•       Fossils provide evidence for evolution, because they show how organisms have changed over time (Y6)

•       The rock cycle and the formation of igneous, sedimentary and metamorphic rocks (KS3)

•       The composition of the Earth (KS3)

•       The structure of the Earth (KS3)

•       Earth as a source of limited resources and the efficacy of recycling (KS3)

Disciplinary

•       A&P: Scientists group objects or living things based on their properties (Y1)

•       M&O: Observe using a magnifying glass safely (Y2)

•       M&O: Make systematic observations of an object (Y2)

•       R&P: Use a pair of axes to classify items based on the extent to which it displays two properties (Y2)

Make observations about rocks using senses and magnifying glass, and classify them in a Carroll diagram/pair of axes

VCs

•       5: Much of the solid surface of the Earth is covered in soil, which is a mixture of pieces of rock of various sizes and the remains of organisms. Some soil also contains air, water and some nutrients

•       5: There are many different kinds of rock with different composition and properties.

•       10: Fossils are the preserved remains or traces of living things

•       5: The action of water wears down rock gradually into smaller pieces (see Geography, Year 5 : Investigating water)

•       5: Beneath the Earth’s solid crust is a hot layer called the mantle. The Earth’s crust consists of a number of solid plates which move relative to each other, carried along by movements of the mantle. The formation of mountains, earthquakes and volcanic activity are likely to occur at these cracks (see Geography Year 3 Spring: Mountains and Volcanoes and Year 4 Summer: Earthquakes)

 

 

 

 

Autumn 2

Required prior knowledge

Knowledge to be explicitly taught

How knowledge will be built upon

Substantive

•       We see shadows during the day (N3-4 Aut1)

•       It is important to wear sun cream and sun hats when it is sunny (N3-4 Sum2)

•       Daytime happens when we are facing the sun; nighttime happens we are facing away from the sun (Y1)

•       The Moon is more visible at night (Y1)

•       Humans have five senses, smell, taste, touch, sight and hearing (Y1)

•       The five senses are each associated with different body parts (eyes, ears, nose, tongue) (Y1)

•       Materials have different physical properties, some materials are hard whilst others are soft, some can be described as rough whilst others are smooth, some are dull whereas others are shiny (Y1)

•       Light travels in straight lines

•       We see when light enters our eyes

•       Darkness is the absence of light

•       Sources of light emit their own light, and others reflect light; both occur in nature as well as man-made objects

•       Some objects are more reflective than others

•       Opaque, translucent and transparent materials allow no, some or all light to pass through them

•       Shadows form behind an opaque object when light from a source is blocked

•       The shape and position of shadows changes with the angle of the light source

•       The size of shadows changes when the distance of the light source changes

•       Light from the sun can be dangerous and there are ways to protect our eyes and skin.

•       In ray diagrams, straight lines with arrows show where the energy is being transferred from and to by light (Y6)

•       On a flat surface, all light meeting a surface from one direction will be reflected in the same direction. This is known as specular reflection (Y6)

•       On a rough surface, light will be reflected in all directions. This is known as diffuse reflection (Y6)

•       Specular reflection between mirrors allow us to see the objects that do not directly reflect light into our eyes (e.g. periscope) (Y6)

•       When light meets an opaque object, some of the light is reflected and some of it is absorbed (Y6)

•       White light, which comes from most light sources we use in the classroom, contains all the colours of the visible spectrum (Y6)

•       When a light meets a surface, some colours are absorbed and some are reflected. We see the colour(s) that are reflected (Y6)

•       Objects appear black if they absorb all the colours in white light, and reflect none. Objects appear white if they reflect all the colours in white light, and absorb none (Y6)

Disciplinary

•       Mathematics: Measure length and height (cm/m) (Y2)

•       A&P: There are four main stages of enquiry (A&P, M&O, R&P, A&E) (Y2)

•       A&P: Scientists look for patterns in the world around them; they conduct investigations to identify whether a pattern they think they've seen is really there (Y2)

•       A&P: It is important that we keep as much as we can the same, apart from the thing we measure and the one thing we change (Y2)

Investigate how the height of a shadow varies as the distance between light source and object changes

•       A&P: A dependent variable is what you measure; an independent variable is what you change; controlled variables are things that stay the same

•       A&P: Scientists identify factors in an investigation that should be controlled, and try to find ways to control them

•       A&P: Recognise risk and build a plan to minimise them

•       A&P: Select most appropriate equipment to measure (the variables)

•       A&P: Write an appropriate method

•       A&P: Scientists must work out if the factor is the cause of the outcome in a correlation (Y5)

VCs

•       6: Daytime is when the Earth is facing the Sun; nighttime is when the Earth is facing away from the Sun (Y1)

•       2: Objects can have an affect on other objects even when they are not in contact with them. Light reaches our eyes, even though the light source may be far away

•       6: The Moon reflects light from the Sun

•       2: The non-contact force of magnetism mean magnets can attract or repel other magnets (Y3)

•       6: Our Sun is one of many stars that make up the Universe (Y5)

 

Spring 1

Required prior knowledge

Knowledge to be explicitly taught

How knowledge will be built upon

Substantive

•       Some animals hibernate in winter (N3-4 Aut1)

•       Animals can be placed into groups (carnivores, herbivores and omnivores) based on the foods they eat (Y1)

•       Humans are omnivores, but some choose to eat only plants (Y1)

•       Humans need to eat a healthy and balanced diet (Y2)

•       Humans are made of many different body parts including head, neck, back, ears, eyes, nose, mouth, arms, shoulders, elbows, hands, fingers, legs, knees, feet, toes, ears, eyes, nose, mouth, arms, legs, hands, feet, toes (Y2)

•       Living things move, reproduce, are sensitive to their surroundings, grow, need oxygen, get rid of their waste, and need nutrition (MRS GOWN) (Y2)

•       Living things are called organisms (Y2)

•       Animals get their food from plants and other animals, this food provides the energy animals need (Y2)

•       The main food groups are carbohydrates (starch and sugars), proteins, fats, dairy, fruit and vegetables

•       Humans need a balanced diet which is made of main food groups

•       Vitamins, minerals and fibre are needed and being deficient in these causes diseases

•       Different animals have different nutritional needs

•       Our skeleton is made up of bones that grow as we grow

•       Humans and some other animals have skeletons

•       Organs are parts of the body that do a particular job, the heart pumps blood around the body and the lungs are used for breathing which gets air into your body.

•       The skeleton protects organs, e.g. the skull protects the brain; and the ribcage protects the lungs, heart and other important organs

•       The skeleton supports the body, e.g. the spine helps the body stand

•       The skeleton helps the body move, e.g. pelvis and knee joints

•       The muscles and skeleton are required to help the body move. When muscles contract they pull the bone

•       Some organisms have endoskeletons, some have exoskeletons, and some have neither

•       Endoskeletons grow with the organisms, exoskeletons do not so need to be shed and replaced

•       Invertebrates can be placed into groups based on their skeletons; endoskeletons, exoskeletons, or hydrostatic skeletons (Y4)

•       There are four main types of teeth: incisors, canines, pre-molars and molars. They each have a different purpose (Y4)

•       Herbivores, carnivores and omnivores have these types of teeth in different proportions (Y4)

•       Animals and plants need to digest food to transfer energy from it (Y4)

•       The digestive system is the group of organs that help your body digest food (Y4)

•       The heart is a muscle that pumps blood around the body through blood vessels (Y6)

Disciplinary

•       R&P: Draw a diagram, a simple scientific drawing that explains or informs

•       Science is studied as three disciplines: biology (study of organisms), chemistry (study of materials) and physics (study of energy)

Label the main bones on a diagram of a human skeleton, give the function of each bone.

•       A&P: Science is studied as three disciplines: biology (study of organisms), chemistry (study of properties of matter and how it interacts with energy) and physics (study of energy) (Y5)

VCs

•       4: All living things need food to give them energy (Y2)

 

 

 

 

Spring 2

Required prior knowledge

Knowledge to be explicitly taught

How knowledge will be built upon

Substantive

•       Coniferous plants keep their leaves all year round; deciduous plants lose their leaves in winter (e.g. oak, silver birch, horse chestnut, sycamore, ash) (Y1)

•       Trees are a type of plant that have a tall stem made of wood (Y1)

•       The basic parts of a plant are leaves, flowers, roots, stem/trunk/branch (Y1)

•       Germination is the development of a plant from a seed , during germination roots and shoots emerge and grow (Y1)

•       Germination is the development of a plant from a seed. During germination roots and shoots emerge and grow (Y1)

•       Plants need water, light and a suitable temperature to grow (Y2)

•       A seed is living. A seed is the embryonic stage of the plant life cycle. A seed consists of three parts: the seed coat, the endosperm and the embryo. To germinate, a seeds needs water and a certain temperature (Y2)

•       Many plants make fruits or vegetables; some of these grow below ground (Y2)

•       Living things move, reproduce, are sensitive to their surroundings, grow, need oxygen, get rid of their waste, and need nutrition (MRS GOWN) (Y2)

•       Living things have adapted to their environment. This means they may not be able to survive in other habitats (Y2)

•       Soil is a mixture of particles of rock, dead plants and animals, air and water (Y2)

•       Oxygen and carbon dioxide are found in the air

•       Plants need air (oxygen and carbon dioxide), water, light, nutrients from the soil, space, and a suitable temperature to grow

•       Requirements for life vary from plant to plant and they are adapted to their environment

•       Roots absorb nutrients from the soil and help anchor the plant

•       The stem/trunk supports the plant and transports water up the plant. The xylem transports water and nutrients from the roots, and the phloem transports food from the leaves to the all parts of the plant

•       Leaves use sunlight, carbon dioxide from the air and water to make their own food

•       The four main stages of the plant's life cycle include germination, pollination, fertilisation and seed dispersal

•       Coniferous trees transport their seeds in cones; deciduous trees use seeds and flowers/fruit

•       Pollination and fertilisation usually takes place in flowers. Dispersal is important to make sure there is enough space for seeds to germinate and plants to grow.

•       Seeds can be dispersed by wind (e.g. sycamore), by animals in their droppings (e.g. things that are eaten, like a raspberry), attached to animal fur (e.g. goosegrass), or seeds can be self-propelled (pea pod)

•       The male part of the plant is called the stamen, made up of the anther and filament, and the anther produces pollen grains (Y5)

•       The female parts of the plant are the ovary (which produces the female sex cells which are contained in  the ovule) and the stigma which collects pollen (Y5)

•       Sexual reproduction is two parents - usually male and female - create a new organism by mixing their gene (Y5). Asexual reproduction does not involve sex cells or fertilisation. Only one parent is needed, and the offspring are (genetically) identical to the parent and each other (Y5)

•       Potatoes develop tubers and daffodils have bulbs, which will grow to be identical copies of the plant (Y5)

•       Geography: Adaptations of some plants in rainforests (e.g. buttress roots) (Y4)

•       Geography: A symbiotic relationship is a long-term relationship between one or more species. Mutualism is where this both species in the relationship receive benefits

Disciplinary

•       Mathematics: Measure length and height (cm/m) (Y2); Interpret and construct block diagrams (Y2)

•       A&P: Dependent, independent and control variables (Y3)

•       A&P: Make a prediction based on substantive knowledge (Y2)

•       A&P: Scientists identify factors in an investigation that should be controlled, and try to find ways to control them

Investigate the impact of light on the growth of plants, drawing a block diagram to illustrate results

•       R&P: Design a table to collect data with the appropriate number of rows and columns and correct headings

Research methods of seed dispersal of different plants

•       M&O: Gather information from the internet

VCs

•       4: All living things need food to give them energy (Y2)

•       7: Living things grow, need, water, air and food, react to their surroundings, move, get rid of their waste, reproduce (Y2)

•       8: Most plants make their own food (Y2)

•       7: Living things – organisms – need water, air, food, a way of getting rid of water and an environment that stays within a particular temperature range

•       8: Plants make their own food using sunlight, carbon dioxide and water

•       7: Micro-organisms are organisms that are so small that we cannot see them with our eyes alone (Y6)

•       8: Animals are ultimately dependent on plants for their survival (Y4)

 

Summer 1

Required prior knowledge

Knowledge to be explicitly taught

How knowledge will be built upon

Substantive

•       How slow/fast a vehicle moves along a track depends on how hard/gently it is pushed/pulled, how steep the slope is, or whether there is an obstacle in its way (N3-4 Spr1)

•       How slow/fast a boat moves across the water depends on how hard/gently we blow at them through straws (N3-4 Spr1)

•       Solids keep their shape unless a force is put on it. They will change their shape if you cut or squash them (Y2)

•       Forces are pushes or pulls

•       Forces arise when objects interact with each other

•       Forces can cause a change in speed, direction or shape of an object

•       Forces act in particular directions

•       Forces that act in opposite directions are called opposing forces.

•       We use arrows to show the size of the force and the direction it acts in.

•       Forces that are equal and act in opposite directions are described as balanced forces, they ‘cancel each other out’

•       When forces are balanced, an object will move at a constant speed in the same direction. This includes being stationary!

•       When the forces acting in the opposite directions are not equal this can cause the object they are acting on to move at a different speed or in a different direction.

•       Unbalanced forces can change the shape of an object.

•       Friction is a force between two surfaces that are sliding or trying to slide over each other

•       The bumpier or rougher the surfaces, the more friction there will be

•       Contact forces require contact between two objects (e.g. friction). Non-contact forces can affect an object at a distance (e.g. magnetism) (Y3)

•       Magnetism is a non-contact force exerted by magnets when they attract or repel each other (Y3)

•       Gravity is a non-contact force (Y5)

•       Air and water resistance are contact, frictional forces (Y5)

Disciplinary

•       Mathematics: Measure length and height (cm/m) (Y2)

•       A&P: Science is studied as three disciplines: biology (study of organisms), chemistry (study of materials) and physics (study of energy) (Y3)

•       A&P: Dependent, independent and control variables (Y3)

•       R&P: Design a table to collect data with the appropriate number of rows and columns and correct headings

•       A&E: Make simple statements about the results of an enquiry

Investigate how the surface of a ramp affects the distance a car will travel

•       M&O: Taking multiple readings allows you to see if your data is repeatable and helps you identify anomalous results.

•       M&O: Data is repeatable if the same person repeats the investigation and gets the same results; data is reproducible if the investigation is repeated by a different person and the results are the same

•       M&O: Anomalous results should be discarded and re recorded

•       A&E: Draw conclusions (e.g. 'the greater the… , the greater the…’)

•       The difference between accurate data and precise data (KS3)

•       Using the mean as a method of analysing a set of data (Y6)

VCs

•       1: Things around us can be made to change or happen. We can pull objects behind us or push them across the table

•       3: Forces can push, pull or twist objects, making them change shape or motion

•       3: Things can only change their motion if there is a net force acting on them

•       3: When forces acting on an object are not equal and opposite in direction, they are unbalanced and will change an object’s speed, direction or shape

•       3: An object on Earth pulls the Earth as much as the Earth pulls the object, but because the Earth’s mass is much bigger, we observe the motion of the object (Y5)

•       3: The downward force of gravity on an object on the Moon is less than that on Earth because the Moon has less mass on Earth (Y5)

 

Summer 2

Required prior knowledge

Knowledge to be explicitly taught

How knowledge will be built upon

Substantive

•       Magnetic materials are attracted to magnets (N3-4 Spr1)

•       Magnets can repel or attract each other, depending on which way they are held to each other (N3-4 Spr1)

•       Objects have a name and often have a purpose. For example, a cup is the object, and its purpose is for drinking from. The material is what an object is made of, for example a cup can be made of paper or plastic (Y1)

•       Forces are pushes or pulls (Y3)

•       Forces can cause a change in speed, direction or shape of an object (Y3)

•       Forces act in particular directions (Y3)

•       Forces that act in opposite directions are called opposing forces (Y3)

•       Forces that are equal and act in opposite directions are described as balanced forces, they cancel each other out (Y3)

•       Friction is a force between two surfaces that are sliding or trying to slide over each other

•       Geography: The North Pole and the South Pole are at the top and bottom of the Earth (Y1)

•       Contact forces require contact between two objects (e.g. friction). Non-contact forces can affect an object at a distance (e.g. magnetism)

•       Friction is a contact force because it requires the two objects to be touching

•       Magnetism is the force exerted by magnets when they attract or repel each other

•       Magnets can exert a force at a distance, which is called a non-contact force

•       Magnets have a north and a south pole.

•       If opposite poles are facing the magnets will be attracted to one another (the magnets pull towards each other). If the same poles are facing the magnets will repel (the magnets will push away from each other).

•       Magnets attract objects made from magnetic materials

•       Some metals are magnetic but not all are. Plastics, wood, fabric, glass are all non-magnetic

•       The closer to the poles of the magnet, the stronger the magnetic force

•       Magnetic forces act at a distance (non-contact force) and can act through materials.

•       A stronger magnet can attract an object through thicker layer of  material compared to a weaker magnet.

•       The stronger the magnet, the heavier the object it can attract

•       Force is measured in newtons (Y5)

•       Gravity is a non-contact force that pulls all objects towards each other (Y5)

•       The greater the mass of an object, the greater the gravitational pull around it (Y5)

•       Gravity is most commonly experienced as the pull of the Earth (and all objects on it) towards each other (Y5)

•       The Earth's gravitational pull is so large that all objects - regardless of how heavy they are - are pulled towards Earth at the same rate (Y5)

•       Air resistance is a frictional force that acts between air and a moving object to slow it down (Y5)

•       Water resistance is a frictional force that acts between water and a moving object to slow it down (Y5)

Disciplinary

•       Mathematics: Measure length and height (cm/m) (Y2)

•       A&P: Dependent, independent and control variables (Y3)

•       A&E: Draw conclusions (e.g. 'the greater the… , the greater the…')

Test which materials are magnetic, and use this knowledge to make predictions about which objects will be magnetic

•       A&E: Use findings of an investigation to make further predictions

•       A&E: Suggest ways to improve practical procedures to obtain more accurate measurements

VCs

•       2: Objects can have an affect on other objects even when they are not in contact with them. Light reaches our eyes, even though the light source may be far away (Y3)

•       2: The non-contact force of magnetism mean magnets can attract or repel other magnets

•       2: Sound comes from things that vibrate and can be detected at a distance from the source because the air or other material around is made to vibrate. Sounds are heard when the vibrations in the air reach our ears (Y4)

Year 4

Autumn 1

Required prior knowledge

Knowledge to be explicitly taught

How knowledge will be built upon

Substantive

•       Insects like ants, bees, and ladybirds are animals (Rec Spr2)

•       Spiders and insects live in the habitats around our school (Rec Spr)

•       Plants are classed as living things because they grow, move, reproduce, and need nutrition (Y1)

•       Animals can be grouped into fish, amphibians, reptiles, birds and mammals (name common examples) (Y1)

•       Animals can be placed into groups (carnivores, herbivores, omnivores) based on what they eat (Y1)

•       Animals, including humans, reproduce. This means they have offspring that grow into adults (Y2)

•       Living things are called organisms (Y2)

•       Animals move from place to place, while plants move on the spot (Y2)

•       Habitats are the places that living things live. A very small habitat is called a micro-habitat (Y2)

•       Living things are adapted to their environment. This means they may not be able to survive in other habitats (Y2)

•       Geography: Land use is how land is used by humans, and could include housing, farm land, office or shop (Y2)

•       Some organisms have endoskeletons, some have exoskeletons, and some have neither (Y3)

•       History: The Ancient Greeks contributed knowledge that is relevant today, including medicine, science, mathematics and astronomy (Y3)

•       Classification refers to a method used to place all living things into groups.

•       Organisms can be classified in a number of ways

•       A species is a group of one type of organism, individuals in this group can breed with each other to produce offspring that can go on to reproduce

•       Fish, amphibians, reptiles, birds and mammals are all vertebrates

•       Vertebrates have endoskeletons

•       Vertebrates can be grouped in a number of ways based on their characteristics, e.g. warm/cold blooded; or physical features like fur, beak, wings etc.

•       Invertebrates can be grouped based on their characteristics as snails and slugs; worms; spiders and insects

•       Invertebrates can be placed into groups based on their skeletons; endoskeletons, exoskeletons, or hydrostatic skeletons

•       Plants can be grouped into flowering and non-flowering plants

•       Buildings and new developments have destroyed many habitats. This means number and types of organisms in these areas has gone down

•       Creating nature reserves is one way to prevent the loss of habitat. Setting aside land that cannot be used for building (greenbelt) helps keep habitats intact

•       Invertebrates can be grouped based on their characteristics as poriferans (sponges) cnidarians, echinoderms, molluscs, annelids, platyhelminths and arthropods (spiders, insects, crustaceans and myriapods). Plants can be grouped into moss, ferns, conifers and flowering plants. (Y6)

•       Fungi are different to plants and animals. They cannot make their own food (like animals) but do not move (like plants) (Y6)

•       Micro-organisms are organisms that are so small that we cannot see them with our eyes alone. (Y6)

•       Some fungi are microorganisms (e.g. yeast), but not all are (e.g. mushrooms). (Y6)

•       Bacteria are microorganisms, some bacteria can cause disease in other organisms (Y6)

•       Variation occurs within and between species (Y6)

Disciplinary

•       M&O: Observe using a magnifying glass safely

Identifying animals and plants that do not support Aristotle’s approach to classifying living things; exploring history of other debates (e.g. duck-billed platypus)

•       A&P: Identify scientific evidence that has been used to support or refute ideas

Use a classification key to sort organisms

•       R&P: Use a classification key to identify an object

Draw a classification key to identify four animals, and then several leaves (using a magnifying glass)

•       R&P: Draw a dichotomous classification key to help others identify an object

•       A&E: Science is never 'complete' and scientists are always working to make models more accurate or to discover new explanations (Y5)

VCs

•       8: There is a wide variety of living things, including plants and animals (Y1)

 

Autumn 2

Required prior knowledge

Knowledge to be explicitly taught

How knowledge will be built upon

Substantive

•       Deciduous plants lose their leaves in winter (e.g. oak, silver birch, horse chestnut, sycamore, ash) (Y1)

•       Animals can be placed into groups (carnivores, herbivores and omnivores) based on the food they eat (Y1)

•       Humans are omnivores, but some choose to eat only plants (Y1)

•       Animals get their food from plants and other animals; this food provides the energy animals need

•       Humans need to practice hygiene to stay healthy (Y2)

•       Most plants produce their own food and are called producers (Y2)

•       In a food chain, the arrows show where the energy is being transferred from and to (Y2)

•       Different animals have different nutritional needs (Y3)

•       Organs are parts of the body that do a particular job, like the heart pumps blood around the body and the lungs are used for breathing, which gets air into the body (Y3)

•       A food chain starts with a producer (usually a plant) who can produce its own food. Organisms that eat producers are called consumers (primary and secondary)

•       A predator hunts prey to eat

•       A food web shows the transfer of energy between different organisms (include water as well as land organisms)

•       An ecosystem is made up of all organisms living in an area and the non-living features of the environment

•       There are four main types of teeth: incisors, canines, pre-molars and molars. They each have a different purpose.

•       Herbivores, carnivores and omnivores have these teeth types in different proportions

•       Babies’ teeth develop before they are born, deciduous (milk) teeth push through the gums when a child is about 6 months.

•       Deciduous teeth fall out from the age of 5 and are replaced with adult teeth.

•       Bacteria can cause tooth decay.

•       Animals and plants need to digest food to transfer energy from it

•       The digestive system is the group of organs that help your body digest food. Digestion in humans is chemical and mechanical

•       Chemical and mechanical digestion takes place in the mouth (saliva and chewing)

•       Food travels down the oesophagus from the mouth into the stomach

•       In the stomach, mechanical (churning) and chemical digestion takes place to break down food further

•       Food is further broken down by enzymes (chemical digestion) in the small intestines where most of the nutrients are absorbed

•       Water is absorbed in the large intestine, leaving behind the faeces.

•       Faeces are mainly made of food we could not digest; faeces are stored in the rectum and pass out of the human body via the anus.

•       Each organ and muscle in the human body needs oxygen and nutrients (from breathing in and eating/digesting) (Y6)

•       Blood carries oxygen, nutrients and carbon dioxide around the body (Y6)

•       Nutrients are absorbed by the blood along the small intestine, and transported to other organs in the body (Y6)

•       Some bacteria are helpful for other organisms (e.g. those that help break down food in our digestive system) and those that form part of a symbiotic relationship (Y6)

•       The role of enzymes in chemical digestion (KS3)

•       The interdependence of organisms in an ecosystem and how organisms affect and are affected by their environment to include the accumulation of toxic materials (KS3)

Disciplinary

•       R&P: Draw a diagram, a simple scientific drawing that explains or informs (Y1)

Explain the digestion process using a prop to others in school or at home

•       R&P: Present information orally using a prop or demonstration

VCs

•       4: All living things need food to give them energy (Y2)

•       4: The arrows in a food chain show where energy is being transferred from and to (Y2)

•       8: Plants make their own food using sunlight, carbon dioxide and water (Y3)

•       4: The arrows in a food web show where energy is being transferred from and to

•       8: Animals are ultimately dependent on plants for their survival

•       8: The relationships among organisms can be represented as food chains and food webs

•       4: Energy cannot be created or destroyed. When energy is transferred from one object to others, the total amount of energy in the universe remains the same; the amount that one object loses is the same as the other objects gain (Y5)

•       8: In any given ecosystem there is competition among species for the energy and materials they need to live (Y6)

 

Spring 1

Required prior knowledge

Knowledge to be explicitly taught

How knowledge will be built upon

Substantive

•       We see puddles when it's rainy, shadows during the day and rainbows when there is sunshine and rain (N3-4 Aut1)

•       Melting and freezing can be observed in the world around us (N3-4 Aut1)

•       Geography: Precipitation is the fall of water as rain, sleet, snow or hail (Y2)

•       All materials are made of a single substance or a mixture of substances (Y2)

•       There are three states of matter: solids, liquids and gases (Y2)

•       Liquids take the shape of the container they are in, when you move the liquid into a different container the shape will change (Y2)

•       Solids keep their shape unless a force is put on it.  They will change their shape if you cut them or squash them (Y2)

•       Gases have no fixed shape or volume, they spread out to fill a container.  If they are not in a container, they will keep spreading out (Y2 )

•       We can decide if a substance is a solid, liquid or gas by looking at its properties (Yr 2)

•       One substance can exist in the different states, when the substance is in a different state it is still the same substance (Y2)

•       The different substances in their different forms (solids, liquids and gases) are all made of particles

•       The particles in the different states of matter are arranged differently

•       In a solid the particles are packed tightly together, they vibrate slowly and are unable to move away from their neighbours

•       In a liquid the particles are close together but they can slide past each other

•       In a gas the particles are spread out and can move freely

•       Substances can change from one state of matter to another. Solids can change to become a liquid, liquids can change to become a gas, gases can change to become liquids and liquids can change to become a solid

•       The process that changes a solid to a liquid is called melting

•       When you heat a solid it becomes a liquid. Different substances melt at different temperatures, this is called the melting point

•       The process that changes a liquid to a gas is called evaporating

•       Evaporation happens when a liquid is heated. Evaporation is different from boiling.

•       The process that changes a gas to a liquid is called condensing

•       The process that changes a liquid to a solid is called freezing

•       Substances change state at different temperatures, i.e. they have different melting and boiling points

•       Different substances are different states at room temperature

•       The water cycle relies on evaporation and condensation. Water is collected in the oceans from rivers; it evaporates and then condenses to form clouds; it then precipitates and the cycle begins again

•       When a solid is heated the solid becomes a liquid.  Energy from a chemical store is transferred to the solid, and as the solid becomes hotter its thermal store of energy goes up. The particles in the solid therefore move more (Y5)

•       Conservation of material and of mass, and reversibility, in melting, freezing, evaporation, sublimation, condensation, dissolving (KS3)

•       Similarities and differences, including density differences between solids, liquids and gases (KS3)

•       Brownian motion of gases (KS3)

•       Diffusion in terms of the particle model (KS3)

•       Energy changes on changes of state (KS3)

Disciplinary

•       Mathematics: Measure temperature (°C) and volume (ml/litres) (Y3)

•       A&P: dependent, independent and control variables (Y3)

•       A&P: Scientists identify factors in an investigation that should be controlled, and try to find ways to control them (Y3)

•       A&P: Science is studied as three disciplines: biology (study of organisms), chemistry (study of materials) and physics (study of energy) (Y3)

•       A&P: Scientists identify potential hazards in their experiments and plan ways to reduce them (Y2 Aut)

•       R&P: Draw a diagram, a simple scientific drawing that explains or informs

Investigate the effect of temperature on the rate of evaporation

•       A&P: Set a hypothesis to test

•       A&E: Scientists use models to help explain their ideas

•       A&P: Scientists must work out if the factor is the cause of the outcome in a correlation (Y5)

VCs

•       1: All the ‘stuff’ encountered in everyday life, including air, water and different kinds of solid substances is called matter (Y2)

•       1: Different materials are recognisable by their properties (Y2)

•       1: The amount of material does not change when a solid melts or a liquid evaporates

•       1: If a material could be divided into smaller and smaller pieces it would be found to be made of pieces, particles, smaller than can be seen even with a microscope. These particles are not in a material; they are the material

•       1: When some materials combine, they do not change permanently and can be separated again (Y5)

•       1: Materials can be changed by heating and cooling (Y5)

 

Spring 2

Required prior knowledge

Knowledge to be explicitly taught

How knowledge will be built upon

Substantive

•       Humans have features that are associated with each sense (eyes, ears, nose, mouth and tongue) (Y1)

•       In a solid the particles are packed tightly together, they vibrate slowly and are unable to move away from their neighbours (Y4)

•       In a liquid the particles are close together, but they can slide past each other (Y4)

•       In a gas the particles are spread out and can move freely (Y4)

•       Sounds are made when objects vibrate.

•       Sounds are transmitted from a source to a detector.

•       Vibrations travel through a medium (e.g. air, water) to the ear

•       Vibrations enter the ear, our inner ear vibrates and we hear them as sound.

•       Vibrations are passed on from one particle to the next, and so it travels more easily when particles are closer together (solids and liquids)

•       Sound cannot travel in a vacuum

•       The volume of a sound is how loud or quiet it is

•       Louder sounds are caused by bigger vibrations, smaller sounds are caused by smaller vibrations.

•       The pitch of a sound is how high or low it is.

•       Sounds get fainter as the distance from the sound source increases

•       Different animals hear different sounds

•       Humans’ hearing changes as we age

•       Sound cannot travel in a vacuum, in space (Y5)

•       Frequencies of sound waves, measured in hertz (Hz) (KS3)

•       Echoes, reflection and absorption of sound (KS3)

•       Sound needs a medium to travel in (KS3)

•       The speed of sound in air, water and solids (KS3)

•       Sound produced by vibrations of objects, in loudspeakers, detected by their effects on microphone diaphragm and the ear drum (KS3)

•       Sound waves are longitudinal waves (KS3)

•       The auditory range of humans and animals (KS3)

Disciplinary

•       A&P: Set a hypothesis to test (Y4)

•       A&E: Suggest ways to improve practical procedures to obtain more accurate measurements (Y3)

Investigate the tautness on pitch using an app

•       M&O: Gather information using a data logger (e.g. sound meter app; heart rate app)

•       M&O: Gather information using other data loggers (Y6)

VCs

•       2: Objects can have an affect on other objects even when they are not in contact with them. Light reaches our eyes, even though the light source may be far away (Y3)

•       2: The non-contact force of magnetism mean magnets can attract or repel other magnets (Y3)

•       2: Sound comes from things that vibrate and can be detected at a distance from the source because the air or other material around is made to vibrate. Sounds are heard when the vibrations in the air reach our ears

•       2: The non-contact force of gravity makes things fall to Earth (Y5)

•       2: There is gravitational force between all objects, but it is only felt when one or more of the objects has a very large mass (Y5)

 

Summer 1

Required prior knowledge

Knowledge to be explicitly taught

How knowledge will be built upon

Substantive

•       Common materials include wood, paper, metal, glass, water, rock (Yr1)

•       Materials have different physical properties, some materials are hard whilst others are soft, some can be described as rough whilst others are smooth, some are dull whereas others are shiny(Yr1)

•       Materials can be grouped in a number of ways based on their physical properties(Yr1)

•       The material that we choose to make an object from depends on its purpose (e.g. no chocolate kettle) (Yr1)

•       Electrical appliances have a purpose and require electricity to work (e.g. toaster, kettle, fan, phone, game)

•       A lamp in a circuit will only light if there is a complete circuit.

•       A complete circuit must have at least one cell and have all the components connected in a loop. If it is missing any of these things it is an incomplete circuit

•       A short circuit can be created by accident by connecting just the wire to the cell in a circuit. They can be dangerous.

•       Components include wire, lamp, buzzer, motor or switch

•       Materials that allow electricity to pass through them easily are called electrical conductors

•       Metals and water are good conductors of electricity

•       Materials that do not allow electricity to pass through them easily are called electrical insulators

•       Plastic, rubber, wood, glass, paper and fabric are electrical insulators

•       In a circuit that has a battery, the battery is the chemical store of energy.  Energy is transferred electrically to the device in the circuit but the device does not store the energy, the device changes the way the energy is transferred (Y5)

•       There are recognised symbols for cell, lamp, buzzer, motor, and switch. Wires are represented with straight lines (Y6)

•       Increasing the voltage in a circuit will increase the brightness of a lamp and increase the volume of a buzzer (Y6)

•       The more components in the circuit, the dimmer the lamps in the circuit (Y6)

•       As long as batteries have the same voltage, the size of the battery does not affect the brightness of the lamp/loudness of the buzzer (though the smaller batteries will not last as long as the larger ones) (Y6)

Disciplinary

•       A&P: Dependent, independent and control variables (Y3)

•       A&P: Scientists identify factors in an investigation that should be controlled, and try to find ways to control them  (Y3)

•       A&P: Scientists identify potential hazards in their experiments and plan ways to reduce them (Y2)

•       A&E: Use findings of investigation to make further predictions (Y3)

•       R&P: Design a table to collect data with the appropriate number of rows and columns and correct headings (Y3)

Investigate which materials are electrical conductors and which are electrical insulators

•       A&P: Draw diagram of the investigation

•       R&P: Present information in a written format

VCs

•       4: Things around us can be made to change or happen. We can pull objects behind us or push them across the table (Y1)

•       4: Things around us can be made to change or happen. We can turn on a light bulb and make it brighter or dimmer.

•       4: Many processes and phenomena are explained in terms of energy exchanges (Y5)

•       4: Energy cannot be created or destroyed. When energy is transferred from one object to others, the total amount of energy in the universe remains the same; the amount that one object loses is the same as the other objects gain (Y5)

 

Summer 2

Required prior knowledge

Knowledge to be explicitly taught

How knowledge will be built upon

Substantive

•       Materials have different physical properties, some materials are hard whilst others are soft, some can be described as rough whilst others are smooth, some are dull whereas others are shiny (Y1)

•       Materials have different physical properties such as malleable, waterproof, heatproof, windproof and absorbent. (Y2)

•       The shape of some solid objects made from some materials can be changed by squashing, bending, twisting, or stretching the material (Y2)

•       Opaque, translucent and transparent materials allow no, some or all light to pass through them (Y3)

•       Magnets attract magnetic objects (Y3)

•       Materials that allow electricity to pass through them easily are called electrical conductors (Y4)

•       Materials that do not allow electricity to pass through them easily are called electrical insulators (Y4)

•       Physical properties are properties that we can measure or observe in the classroom

•       Physical properties include electrical conductivity; melting and boiling points; thermal conductivity; being malleable; windproof; hard/soft; and magnetic

•       Energy will be transferred from places with a higher temperature to places with a lower temperature.

•       Thermal conductors allow energy to be transferred through them easily when they are heated. Metals are good thermal conductors.

•       Thermal insulators do not allow energy to be transferred through them easily when heated. Thermal insulators include trapped air, plastic and wood.

•       Elasticity is a physical property. Elastic materials can stretch and then return to its original form.

•       Chemical properties are properties that scientists need specialist equipment to measure

•       Chemical properties include how easy a substance is to set on fire (flammability) or how poisonous something is (toxicity)

•       As we learn more about a substance’s properties, we may decide to stop using it to make certain objects (e.g. lead in pencils is toxic; asbestos is a good insulator but is toxic

•       Differences between physical and chemical changes (Y6)

•       The varying physical and chemical properties of different elements (KS3)

•       The properties of metals and non-metals (KS3)

•       The chemical properties of metal and non-metal oxides with respect to acidity (KS3)

•       Properties of ceramics, polymers and composites (KS3)

Disciplinary

•       A&P: Scientists conduct secondary research to learn from what other scientists have already learned (Y1)

•       A&P: Scientists identify factors in an investigation that should be controlled, and try to find ways to control them (Y3)

•       M&O: Gather information from text/books/images (Y1) and the internet (Y3)

•       A&E: Ask further questions that could be explored to extend findings (Y2)

•       A&E: Identify scientific evidence that has been used to support or refute ideas (Y4)

Investigating the physical properties (thermal conductivity; malleability; transparency; magnetism; electrical conductivity etc.) of materials, using own knowledge or setting up comparative tests

Conduct secondary research to identify an object that was once made of one material but, when new evidence showed other chemical or physical properties, are now made of new materials (e.g. asbestos insulation; lead pencils; plastic bottles)

VCs

•       1: All the ‘stuff’ encountered in everyday life, including air, water and different kinds of solid substances is called matter (Y2)

•       1: Different materials are recognisable by their properties (Y2)

•       1: Materials can be changed by heating and cooling (Y5)

 

 

Year 5

Autumn 1

Required prior knowledge

Knowledge to be explicitly taught

How knowledge will be built upon

Substantive

•       Some materials will dissolve in water (N3-4 Sum1)

•       All materials are made of a single substance or a mixture of substances (Y2)

•       Magnets attract magnetic objects (Y3)

•       Some metals are magnetic but not all are. Plastics, wood, fabric, glass are all non-magnetic materials (Y3)

•       Materials are different states at room temperature (Y4)

•       Physical properties include electrical conductivity; melting and boiling points; thermal conductivity; being malleable; windproof; hard/soft; and magnetic (Y4)

•       A pure substance is one that contains only one substance and only type of particle, e.g. oxygen, iron, pure water

•       A mixture is two or more different substances, e.g. air, steel

•       Mixtures can be made of two gases (e.g. air), two solids (e.g. steel), two liquids (e.g. squash and water), or a liquid and a solid (e.g. salt water)

•       A solvent is a liquid that is used to dissolve other substances.

•       A soluble substance that dissolves in a solvent is a called a solute

•       An insoluble substance is one that will not dissolve in a solvent

•       When a solute dissolves in a solvent, a solution is formed. A solution is a mixture

•       When no more solute can dissolve in the solvent, the solution is saturated

•       Solutes dissolve more quickly when the particles have more energy (i.e. when heated or stirred)

•       Two solids can be separated by using magnets or filters (e.g. sieve)

•       A solid and a liquid can be separated by using filtration (if the solid is insoluble) or evaporation (if the solid is soluble)

•       A reversible change is a change that can be undone, where the original substances can be recovered. An irreversible change is a change that cannot be undone, where the original substances cannot be recovered

•       Physical and chemical changes (Y6)

•       The concept of a pure substance (KS3)

•       Diffusion in terms of the particle model (KS3)

•       Simple techniques for separating mixtures: distillation and chromatography (KS3)

•       The identification of pure substances (KS3)

Disciplinary

•       A&P: Write an appropriate method (Y2)

•       A&P: Scientists identify potential hazards in their experiments and plan ways to reduce them (Y2)

•       A&E: Make a prediction based on substantive knowledge (Y2)

•       A&E: Use findings of investigation to make further predictions (Y3)

Separate a mixture including coarse sand, water, salt and lumps of a magnetic material.

VCs

•       1: The amount of material does not change when a solid melts or a liquid evaporates (Y4)

•       1: If a material could be divided into smaller and smaller pieces it would be found to be made of pieces, particles, smaller than can be seen even with a microscope. These particles are not in a material; they are the material (Y4)

•       1: When some materials combine, they do not change permanently and can be separated again

•       1: Materials can be changed by heating and cooling

•       1: When some materials  are combined, they form a new material with different properties to the original materials (Y6)

 

Autumn 2

Required prior knowledge

Knowledge to be explicitly taught

How knowledge will be built upon

Substantive

Biology:

•       In a food chain, the arrows show where the energy is being transferred from and to (Y2)

•       Leaves use sunlight, carbon dioxide from the air, and water to make their own food (Y3). They are called producers (Y2)

•       A food web shows the transfer of energy between different organisms (Y4)

•       Animals and plants need to digest food to transfer energy from it (Y4)

Physics:

•       A complete circuit must have a power source (cell/batteries) and have all the components connected in a loop. If it is missing any of these things it is an incomplete circuit (Y4)

•       Appliances use electricity to serve a purpose (e.g. toaster, kettle etc.) (Y4)

•       Sounds are made when objects vibrate. These vibrations cause the air particles surrounding them to vibrate and collide, causing the vibrations to pass between particles (Y4)

Chemistry:

•       All substances in their different forms (solids, liquids and gases) are made of particles (Y4)

•       Melting happens when a solid is heated. Different substances melt at different temperatures. This is called the melting point (Y4)

•       Energy can be transferred from one store to another store

•       Fossil fuels, batteries and the Sun are all examples of chemical energy stores

•       Energy stores are needed for something to happen

•       When energy is transferred from one store to another it can be transferred by light, or electrically.

•       When energy is removed from one store and is transferred to another store, the amount of energy in the first store goes down and the amount of energy in the second store goes up

•       Energy is not used up it is just moved around from store to store

•       In a food chain an amount of energy from the Sun (a chemical store) is transferred to the plant by light.  The energy is then transferred along the food chain as the different organisms are eaten.

•       In a circuit that has a battery, the battery is the chemical store of energy.  Energy is transferred electrically to the device in the circuit, but the device does not store the energy; the device changes the way the energy is transferred.

•       When a solid is heated the solid becomes a liquid.  Energy from a chemical store is transferred to the solid, and as the solid becomes hotter its thermal store of energy goes up. The particles in the solid therefore move more

•       When a person pushes or pulls an object their chemical energy store decreases a little.

•       When a person hits a drum to make a sound, their chemical energy store decreases a little.

•       Thermal conductors allow energy to be transferred through it easily when it is heated (Y4)

•       Coal, oil and gas are all used to generate electricity.  The store of chemical energy in the fuel is transferred electrically to the appliances that we use in the home (Y6)

•       Energy can be stored and transferred; it cannot be created or destroyed (KS3)

•       A battery is a store of chemical energy (KS3)

•       Energy can be transferred electrically using an electric current (KS3)

•       Energy can be transferred electrically from the battery using an electric current to a device like a lamp or a buzzer.(KS3)

•       Devices such as bulbs do not store the energy.  During this process the energy is transferred to a different store.(KS3)

•       Appliances are items that transfer electrical energy to a different store, e.g. light to the surroundings.(KS3)

Disciplinary

•       A&P: Science is studied as three disciplines: biology (study of organisms), chemistry (study of materials) and physics (study of energy) (Y3)

•       A&E: Scientists use models to help explain their ideas (Y4)

•       A&P: Science is studied as three disciplines: biology (study of organisms), chemistry (study of properties of matter and how it interacts with energy) and physics (study of energy)

•       More sophisticated understanding of the difference in scientific disciplines and the links between them (KS3)

VCs

•       4: Things around us can be made to change or happen. We can pull objects behind us or push them across the table (Y1)

•       4: All living things need food to give them energy (Y2)

•       4: The arrows in food chains (Y2) and food webs (Y4) show where the energy is being transferred from/to.

•       4: Many processes and phenomena are explained in terms of energy exchanges

•       4: Energy cannot be created or destroyed. When energy is transferred from one object to others, the total amount of energy in the universe remains the same; the amount that one object loses is the same as the other objects gain

•       4: Across the world, the demand for energy increases as human populations grow and modern lifestyles require more energy, particularly electrical energy (Y6)

 

Spring 1

Required prior knowledge

Knowledge to be explicitly taught

How knowledge will be built upon

Substantive

•       Parents and their young animals look similar and different (N3-4 Spr2)

•       Germination is the development of a plant from a seed. During germination roots and shoots emerge and grow (Y2)

•       Some plants grow from bulbs (Y2)

•       A seed is the embryonic stage of the plant life cycle (Y2)

•       Animals, including humans, reproduce. This means they have offspring that grow into adults (Y2)

•       As animals grow they get bigger, some animals change during their life cycle as the mature (e.g. tadpole to frog) (Y2)

•       The four main stages of the plant's life cycle include germination, pollination, fertilisation and seed dispersal (Y3)

•       Pollination and fertilisation usually takes place in flowers. Dispersal is important to make sure there is enough space for seeds to germinate and plants to grow (Y3)

•       A species is a group of one type of organism, individuals in this group can breed with each other to produce offspring that can go on to breed (Y4)

•       Fish, amphibians, reptiles, birds and mammals are all vertebrates (Y4)

•       Invertebrates can be grouped based on their characteristics as snails and slugs; worms; spiders and insects (Y4)

•       Plants and animals look similar to their parents in many features because information is passed from one generation to the next. This information comes from the parents’ genome.

•       Sexual reproduction involves two parents - usually male and female - creating a new organism by mixing their genomes

•       Sexual reproduction begins with fertilisation of an egg, which mixes the genes from two parents. Fertilisation can be internal or external

•       After an egg is fertilised, an embryo will develop. Embryos develop inside the body in the gestation period for viviparous animals. Embryos develop outside the body in eggs for oviparous animals

•       Viviparous animals are born, oviparous animals hatch from eggs, plant seeds germinate

•       Almost all mammals are viviparous; all birds and most amphibians are oviparous

•       Amphibians and most insects undergo metamorphosis

•       Life cycle of:

•       hedgehog: internal fertilisation, gestation, hoglet, adult

•       peregrine falcon: internal fertilisation, embryo is incubated in eggs, hatchling, fledgling, adult

•       frog: external fertilisation, frogspawn, tadpole, tadpole with legs, adult frog (metamorphosis)

•       ladybird: internal fertilisation, eggs hatch, larva, pupa, adult

•       Most plants have both male and female parts

•       The male part of the plant is called the stamen, made up of the anther and filament, and the anther produces pollen grains.

•       A cell is the smallest building block of living things. All organisms are made of cells

•       There are lots of different types of cell, which each have different purposes

•       The female parts of the plant are the ovary (which produces the female sex cells which are contained in the ovule) and the stigma which collects pollen

•       Asexual reproduction does not involve sex cells or fertilisation. Only one parent is needed and offspring are (genetically) identical to the parent and each other.

•       Potatoes develop tubers and daffodils have bulbs, which will grow to be identical copies of the plant

•       The human life cycle goes through the same stages as those for other animals: fertilisation, gestation, growth (Y5)

•       Humans are viviparous and a foetus develops inside the mother (or surrogate mother). A human embryo is considered a foetus at the end of the 8th week of pregnancy (Y5)

•       The gestation period for humans is 40 weeks

•       The bigger the animal, the longer the gestation period (Y5)

•       A foetus is considered a baby when it is born (Y5)

•       Fertilisation in most humans is internal, but it can happen externally (in vitro fertilisation - IVF - which means ‘in glass’ fertilisation) (Y5)

Disciplinary

•       A&P: Scientists conduct secondary research to learn from what other scientists have already learned (Y1)

•       A&P: Science is studied as three disciplines: biology (study of organisms), chemistry (study of properties of matter and how it interacts with energy) and physics (study of energy) (Y5)

•       M&O: Gather information from text/books/images (Y1) and the internet (Y3)

Using images, text and the internet to research internal and external fertilisation, and viviparous and oviparous organisms

VCs

•       9: Plants and animals reproduce (have offspring) (Y1)

•       9: Organisms produce offspring of the same kind, but in many cases offspring are not identical with each other or with their parents.

•       9: Plants and animals, including humans, resemble their parents in many features because information is passed from one generation to the next.

•       9: Not all information is passed on from one generation to the other in the same way; some skills and behaviour have to be learned

•       10: Although organisms of the same species are very similar, they vary a little

•       9: In a human body, most cells contain 23 pairs of chromosomes. These provide information that is needed to make more cells in growth and reproduction (KS3)

 

Spring 2

Required prior knowledge

Knowledge to be explicitly taught

How knowledge will be built upon

Substantive

•       Talk about how they have changed from being a baby (N3-4 Aut1)

•       Humans are made of many different body parts including head, neck, back, ears, eyes, nose, mouth, arms, shoulders, elbows, hands, fingers, legs, knees, feet, toes, ears, eyes, nose, mouth, arms, legs, hands, feet, toes (Y1)

•       Plants and animals look similar to their parents in many features because information is passed from one generation to the next. This information comes from the parents genome (Y5)

•       Sexual reproduction is two parents - usually male and female - create a new organism by mixing their  genomes (Y5)

•       Sexual reproduction begins with fertilisation of an egg, which mixes the genomes from two parents (Y5)

•       Fertilisation can be internal or external (Y5)

•       After an egg is fertilised, an embryo will develop (Y5)

•       Almost all mammals are viviparous (Y5)

•       Embryos develop inside the body in the gestation period for viviparous animals. (Y5)

•       Viviparous animals are born, oviparous animals hatch from eggs, plant seeds germinate (Y5)

•       The human life cycle goes through the same stages as those for other animals: fertilisation, gestation, growth

•       Fertilisation in most humans is internal, but it can happen externally (in vitro fertilisation - IVF - which means ‘in glass’ fertilisation)

•       The human life cycle: embryo, foetus, infant, child, adolescent, adult, senior

•       Human are viviparous and a foetus develops inside the mother (or surrogate mother)

•       A human embryo is considered a foetus at the end of the 8th week of pregnancy

•       The gestation period for humans is 40 weeks

•       The bigger the animal, the longer the gestation period

•       A foetus is considered a baby when it is born

•       Cognitive, physical and social and emotional development takes place at the greatest rate during infancy

•       During puberty, adolescents' bodies change, e.g. pubic hair, voice deepen, hips widen

•       Primary aging of adults occurs naturally as our bodies get older (e.g. slower reaction time, reduced hearing)

•       Secondary ageing relates to environmental factors, like poor diet, not enough exercise, smoking etc.

•       There are ages where humans at their peak for different things (e.g. reproduction, running etc.)

•       Different cultures around the world have different perceptions around the life cycle and ageing

•       The structure and function of the male and female reproductive systems (KS3)

•       The female menstrual cycle (KS3)

•       The male and female gametes, as specialised cells (KS3)

•       Fertilisation, gestation and birth (KS3)

•       The effect of maternal lifestyle on the foetus (through the placenta) (KS3)

Disciplinary

•       Mathematics: Use coordinates in the first quadrant (Y4);  Interpret and construct line graphs (Y4)

•       A&P: Scientists look for patterns in the world around them (Y1)

•       A&P: Set a hypothesis to test (Y4)

•       A&E: Draw conclusions (e.g. 'the greater the…, the greater the…') (Y4)

•       Geography: Recognise that people have differing opinions about environmental issues (Y4)

Draw a scatter graph to suggest whether there is a relationship between animal size and length of gestation period

•       A&P: Scientists look for patterns in data to try to identify correlations

•       R&P: Scatter graphs can help you decide if there is a relationship between two variables

Discuss one aspect of IVF  that is appropriate to your class (e.g. who in the world has access; post code lottery within the UK)

•       A&E: Some people may agree or disagree with the use of some scientific discoveries

•       Debates around more divisive ethical issues and questions (KS3)

VCs

•       9: Plants and animals reproduce (have offspring) (Y1)

•       9: Organisms produce offspring of the same kind, but in many cases offspring are not identical with each other or with their parents (Y5)

•       9: Plants and animals, including humans, resemble their parents in many features because information is passed from one generation to the next (Y5)

•       9: Not all information is passed on from one generation to the other in the same way; some skills and behaviour have to be learned (Y5)

•       9: In a human body, most cells contain 23 pairs of chromosomes. These provide information that is needed to make more cells in growth and reproduction (KS3)

 

Summer 1

Required prior knowledge

Knowledge to be explicitly taught

How knowledge will be built upon

Substantive

•       Forces are pushes or pulls that act in particular directions. They can cause a change in speed, direction or shape of an object (Y3)

•       Forces that act in opposite directions are called opposing forces (Y3)

•       Forces that are equal and act in opposite directions are described as balanced forces. They 'cancel each other out' (Y3)

•       When forces are balanced, an object will move at a constant speed in the same direction. This includes being stationary (Y3)

•       Contact forces require contact between two objects (e.g. friction). Non-contact forces can affect an object at a distance (e.g. magnetism) (Y3)

•       Friction is a force between two surfaces that are sliding or trying to slide over each other (Y3)

•       Friction is a contact force because it requires the two objects to be touching (Y3)

•       The bumpier or rougher the surfaces, the more friction there will be (Y3)

•       Force is measured in newtons (N)

•       Gravity is a non-contact force that pulls all objects towards each other. The greater the mass of the object, the greater the gravitational pull around it. Gravity is most commonly experienced as the pull of the Earth (and all objects on it) towards each other

•       The Earth's gravitational pull is so large that all objects - regardless of how heavy they are - are pulled towards Earth at the same rate

•       Mass is a measure of how much matter something is made from, which is measured in kg (or equivalent). The mass of an object is always the same.

•       Weight is a force, it is measured in newtons (N)

•       The weight of an object will differ depending on the force of gravity.

•       Air resistance is a frictional force that acts between air and a moving object to slow it down

•       Surface area is the area that is facing the direction the object is travelling in. The larger the surface area of an object, the greater the air resistance

•       Water resistance is a frictional force that acts between water and a moving object to slow it down

•       Levers, pulleys and gears allow a smaller force to have a greater effect. Examples of levers, pulleys and gears include wheelbarrows, lifts, bicycle gears, in construction

•       Levers consist of a beam and a fulcrum (pivot). Effort lifts a load. The greater the distance from the effort to the fulcrum, the less effort is required to move the load

•       Upthrust is an upwards force that a liquid (and a gas) exerts on an object floating in it.

•       If upthrust is equal to the weight of an object it will float.

•       The Earth’s Moon is smaller than the Earth and has less mass, so its gravitational force is less (Y5)

•       Using force arrows in diagrams, adding forces in one dimension, balanced and unbalanced forces (KS3)

•       Moment as the turning effect of a force (KS3)

•       Forces associated with deforming object; stretching and squashing- springs (KS3)

•       Measurement of stretch or compression as force is changed (KS3)

•       Work done and energy changes in deformation (KS3)

•       Non-contact forces: gravity forces acting at a distance on earth and in space, forces between magnets and forces due to static electricity (KS3)

•       Opposing forces and equilibrium; weight held by stretched spring or supported on a compressed surface (KS3)

•       Forces being needed to cause objects to stop or start moving, or to change their speed or direction of motion (KS3)

•       Change depending on direction of force and its size (KS3)

Disciplinary

•       Mathematics: Round numbers with 1 decimal place to the nearest whole number (Y4); Understand difference between discrete and continuous data (Y4); Interpret and construct bar and  line graphs (Y4); Area is the space inside a shape and can be measured by counting squares (Y4)

•       A&P: Dependent, independent and control variables (Y3)

•       A&P: Scientists identify factors in an investigation that should be controlled, and try to find ways to control them (Y3 )

•       M&O: Anomalous results should be discarded and rerecorded (Y3)

•       M&O: Data is repeatable if the same person repeats the investigation and gets the same results; data is reproducible if the investigation is repeated by a different person and the results are the same (Y3)

•       M&O: Taking multiple readings allows you to see if your data is repeatable, and helps identify outliers (Y3)

Investigate how much force is required to pull objects over different surfaces

•       M&O: Measure force using a Newtonmeter

Investigate how surface area affects air resistance, and how shape affects water resistance

•       A&P: Scientists must work out if the factor is the cause of the outcome in a correlation

•       R&P: Line graphs can be used when data is continuous; bar charts can be used when data is discrete

•       A&E: Make judgements on the accuracy of the data

VCs

•       2: Objects can have an affect on other objects even when they are not in contact with them: light (Y3), magnetism (Y3), sound (Y4)

•       3: Forces can push, pull or twist objects, making them change shape or motion (Y3); Things can only change their motion if there is a net force acting on them (Y3); When forces acting on an object are not equal and opposite in direction, they are unbalanced and will change an object’s speed, direction or shape (Y3)

•       2: The non-contact force of gravity makes things fall to Earth

•       2: There is gravitational force between all objects, but it is only felt when one or more of the objects has a very large mass

•       3: An object on Earth pulls the Earth as much as the Earth pulls the object, but because the Earth’s mass is much bigger, we observe the motion of the object

•       There is attraction and repulsion between objects that are electrically charged (KS3); Visible light and other forms of radiation can travel through any empty space (KS3); How quickly an object’s motion is changed depends on the force acting and the object’s mass. The greater the mass of the object, the longer it takes to speed it up or slow it down (inertia) (KS3)

 

Summer 2

Required prior knowledge

Knowledge to be explicitly taught

How knowledge will be built upon

Substantive

•       Geography: We live on the Earth (Y1)

•       Daytime is when the Earth is facing the sun; nighttime is when the Earth is facing away from the sun (Y1)

•       The Moon is more visible at night  (Y1)

•       Animals, including humans, need food, water, oxygen and the right temperature to survive (Y2)

•       Light travels in a straight line (Y3)

•       Sources of light emit their own light, and others reflect light; (Y3)

•       Shadows form behind an opaque object when light from a source is blocked (Y3)

•       Sound travels through a medium; it cannot travel in a vacuum (Y4)

•       Gravity is a non-contact force that pulls all objects towards each other. the greater the mass of the object, the greater the gravitational pull around it (Y5)

•       Air resistance is a frictional force that acts between air and a moving object to slow it down (Y5 Sum)

•       Mass is a measure of how much matter something is made from, which is measured in kg (or equivalent). The mass of an object is always the same. Weight is a force, it is measured in newtons (N). The weight of an object will differ depending on the force of gravity. (Y5)

•       The universe is made up of many galaxies. Our galaxy is called the Milky Way

•       The Milky Way is made up of lots of solar systems

•       Our solar system consists of a star (Sun), planets (which orbit a star), satellites (which orbit planets), and other bodies including asteroids, meteoroids, meteors and meteorites

•       The sun, planets and moons are approximately spherical bodies

•       The Sun is at the centre of the solar system - the heliocentric model

•       Planets orbit the Sun in the same plane; moons orbit planets

•       The Earth takes 365.25 days to orbit the sun (one year). Every four years our Earth year is one day longer, this is called a leap year, this year accounts for the four 0.25 days

•       Bodies are held in their orbit by gravity

•       There are eight planets (M, V, E, M, J, S, U and N). Each planet has different characteristics, e.g. temperature; time taken to orbit the sun; number of moons; size.

•       The Earth rotates on its axis once every 24 hours, so only half of the Earth is facing the Sun at any one time; this creates night and day

•       The Earth's rotation means that the sun 'rises' in the east and 'sets' in the west, and that the Sun is highest in the sky at midday, this explains why the sun appears to move across the sky.

•       The time taken for the Moon to orbit the Earth is 28 days and, during this time, the sun shines on different parts of the Moon

•       The phases of the Moon include new moon, crescent, quarter moon, gibbous moon and full moon

•       Space is a vacuum, which means there are no air particles

•       The Earth’s Moon is smaller than the Earth and has less mass so its gravitational force is less

•       The Earth’s tilt creates seasons, and different day lengths at different times of the year (KS3)

•       Calculating gravity force on different planets and stars (KS3)

•       The light year as a unit of astronomical distance (KS3)

•       Movement of stars and constellations (KS3)

Disciplinary

•       Mathematics: Number of minutes in an hour; hours in a day (Y3); Number of days in a month, year and leap year (Y3)

•       A&P: Scientists must work out if the factor is the cause of the outcome in a correlation (Y5)

•       A&E: Draw conclusions (e.g. 'the greater the… , the greater the…’) (Y3)

•       A&E: Identify scientific evidence that has been used to support or refute ideas (Y4 Aut)

Look for patterns between a planet’s distance from the Sun and its temperature and size

Consider how the number of planets that humans consider to be planets has changed over time

•       A&E: Science is never 'complete' and scientists are always working to make models more accurate or to discover new explanations

•       Scientists seek to understand how accurate their results are, and how confident they can be in their findings (KS3)

VCs

•       6: Daytime is when the Earth is facing the Sun; nighttime is when the Earth is facing away from the Sun (Y1)

•       6: The Moon reflects light from the Sun (Y3)

•       3: The downward force of gravity on an object on the Moon is less than that on Earth because the Moon has less mass on Earth

•       6: Our Sun is one of many stars that make up the Universe.

•       6: The distances between us and the bodies in solar system is huge, and even bigger in the Universe

•       6: The tilt of the Earth’s axis gives rise to seasons  (KS3)

•       6: The movements of galaxies suggest that the Universe is expanding from a past state called the ‘big bang’, towards a future that is still unclear (KS3)

 

Year 6

Autumn 1

Required prior knowledge

Knowledge to be explicitly taught

How knowledge will be built upon

Substantive

•       A complete circuit must have a power source (cell/batteries) and have all the components connected in a loop. If it is missing any of these things it is an incomplete circuit (Y4)

•       A short circuit is the easiest route for electricity to travel and can be created by accident by connecting just the wire to the cell in a circuit. They can be dangerous (Y4)

•       Components include wire, lamp, buzzer, motor or switch Materials that allow electricity to flow through them easily are called electrical conductors; materials that do not are called electrical insulators (Yr4)

•       Appliances use electricity to serve a purpose (e.g. toaster, kettle etc.) (Y4)

•       Energy can be transferred from one store to another store (Y5)

•       Fossil fuels, batteries and the Sun are all examples of chemical energy stores (Y5)

•       In a circuit that has a battery, the battery is a chemical store of energy. Energy is transferred electrically to the device in the circuit, but the device does not store energy. Instead, it changes the way that it is transferred (Y5)

•       Geography: Fossil fuels are materials made from fossils of organisms over millions of years, like coal and oil. Humans use these to run cars/electrical items (Y5)

•       There are recognised symbols for cell, lamp, buzzer, motor, and switch. Wires are represented with straight lines

•       As long as batteries have the same voltage, the size of the battery does not affect the brightness of the lamp/loudness of the buzzer (though the smaller batteries will not last as long as the larger ones)

•       Adding more cells in the circuit increases the voltage. Increasing the voltage in a circuit makes the lamp in the circuit get brighter or the buzzer get louder.

•       More than one lamp can be put into one circuit. They can be placed in series or in parallel.

•       In a series circuit, the lamps are placed in a continuous loop. In parallel, the lamps are placed in separate loops that both connect to the cell

•       Connecting lamps in parallel means that if one lamp burns out the other will stay on and switches can be used to turn each lamp off independently.

•       Many of the appliances used in the home do not use batteries they use mains electricity.

•       Mains electricity is generated in a power station and transferred to our homes by overhead cables. Power stations can use both renewable and non-renewable sources of energy to generate electricity.

•       A non-renewable energy source is one where we have a fixed amount of the source, and where it would take too long for more to be formed. Burning fossil fuels to transfer electrical energy is a non-renewable energy source

•       Renewable energy sources quickly replenish themselves, meaning that we can use them again and again. Wind, solar, geothermal and hydrological power are all examples of renewable energy sources

•       Coal, oil and gas are all used to generate electricity. The store of chemical energy in the fuel is transferred electrically to the appliances that we use in the home.

•       Geography: Improving the environment, and places in the world that have climates or physical features that lend themselves to using renewable sources to generate electricity (Y6)

•       Electric current is measured in amperes using an ammeter. Current is a flow of charge (KS3)

•       Current can be measured in parallel and series circuits. The current will be the same at all points in a series circuit (KS3)

•       Current splits where the circuit branches in a parallel circuit, currents add where branches meet (KS3)

•       Potential difference is measured in volts (V) using a voltmeter. It is measured across a component (KS3)

•       In a series circuit the sum of  the potential difference across all components will equal the battery voltage. In a parallel circuit the potential difference across each of the components will be the same as that of the battery (KS3)

•       Resistance is measured in ohms  and is the ratio of potential difference to current (KS3) Conducting and insulating components will differ in resistance (KS3)

Disciplinary

•       Mathematics: Interpret and construct bar charts (Y3); Discrete data is data you count; continuous data is data you can measure (Y4); Interpret and construct bar, line graphs (Y4)

•       A&P: dependent, independent and control variables (Y3)

•       A&P: Scientists identify factors in an investigation that should be controlled, and find ways to control them

•       M&O: Gather information using a data logger (e.g. sound meter app; heart rate app) (Y4)

•       R&P: Line graphs can be used when data is continuous; bar charts can be used when data is discrete (Y5)

•       A&E: Draw conclusions (e.g. 'the greater the… , the greater the…') (Y4)

Three different enquiries, where pupils will plan the most appropriate type of investigation and how they should present their results:

  1. Investigating the effect of increasing voltage on the volume of a buzzer or the brightness of a lamp
  2. Investigating the effect of changing the number of components in a circuit on the volume of a buzzer

•       R&P: Decide which graph is most appropriate for the enquiry

•       Planning more complex investigations to answer more challenging questions (KS3)

VCs

•       4: Many processes and phenomena are explained in terms of energy exchanges (Y5)

•       4: Energy cannot be created or destroyed. When energy is transferred from one object to others, the total amount of energy in the universe remains the same; the amount that one object loses is the same as the other objects gain (Y5)

•       4: Across the world, the demand for energy increases as human populations grow and modern lifestyles require more energy, particularly electrical energy

•       4: Objects have energy because of their chemical composition, their movement, their temperature, their position in a gravitational or other field, or because of compression or distortion of an elastic material (KS3)

 

Autumn 2

Required prior knowledge

Knowledge to be explicitly taught

How knowledge will be built upon

Substantive

•       Living things have adapted to their environment. This means they may not be able to survive in other habitats (Y2)

•       A fossil is physical evidence of an ancient plant or animal , this could be their preserved remains or other traces that they made when they were alive. Trace fossils are not physical remains of living things they are indirect evidence of life (Y3)

•       A species is a group of one type of organism, individuals in this group can breed with each other to produce offspring that can go on to breed. (Y4)

•       Geography: Animals and plants have adapted to life in the rainforest (buttress roots, lianas, spider monkey, toucan, and fire ants) (Y4)

•       Sexual reproduction is two parents - usually male and female - create a new organism by mixing their genomes (Y5)

•       History: Homo sapiens first lived in East Africa ~200,000 BC and migrated across the world over 1000s of years (Y5)

•       Geography: Flora and fauna that have adapted to life in the tundra (Arctic hare, polar bear) hot desert (cactus, camel, Saharan silver ant, cape ground squirrel) temperate forest (deciduous and coniferous trees, red squirrels, hedgehogs, and southern wood ants) coral reefs (soft coral, pistol shrimp & goby fish, octopus & grouper) (Y5)

•       Variation occurs within and between species

•       Variation can be environmental or genetic, or a mixture of both

•       Genetic variation happens randomly through the mixing of genomes in sexual reproduction.

•       Some variation is advantageous to the organism in their environment; sometimes it is disadvantageous; and sometimes it gives no advantage/disadvantage

•       An organism with advantageous traits are more likely to survive and reproduce, passing those traits to the next generation. This is called natural selection

•       These advantageous traits - adaptations - can be physiological, structural and behavioural

•       Over many generations, the species will evolve so that all organisms have this adaptation/advantageous trait

•       Homo sapiens originated in many parts of Africa

•       Fossils provide evidence for evolution, because they show how organisms have changed over time

•       Scientists involved in the development of evolutionary biology include Al-Jahiz, Charles Darwin, Alfred Wallace, Mary Anning and Dr Danielle Lee

•       Hereditary is the process by which genetic variation is transmitted from one generation to the next (KS3)

•       Chromosomes are made of DNA.  Small sections of DNA are called genes.  We inherit genes from our parents and this is how genetic variation is transmitted from one generation to the next.(KS3)

•       Variation between individuals of the same species is either continuous or discontinuous, this variation means that some individuals will compete more successfully and are more likely to survive, this drives a process known as natural selection. In this process advantageous versions of genes are passed onto offspring (KS3)

•       Changes to the environment can lead to individuals of some species or even entire species less well adapted to their environment. This can lead to extinction. Biodiversity is important and we need to maintain it (KS3)

Disciplinary

•       A&E: Identify scientific evidence that has been used to support or refute ideas (Y4)

•       R&P: Use a Venn diagram to classify items into two or three sets based on properties (Y1)

•       A&P: Science is never 'complete' and scientists are always working to make models more accurate or to discover new explanations (Y5)

Sort variations within species in a Venn diagram, based on whether they are genetic, environmental or a mixture of both

Identify how evidence of fossils has been used to support to change the theory of the evolution of Homo sapiens

VCs

•       8: Animals are ultimately dependent on plants for their survival (Y4)

•       10: Although organisms of the same species are very similar, they vary a little from each other (Y5)

•       8: In any given ecosystem there is competition among species for the energy and materials they need to live.

•       10: There are many kinds of organisms that were once alive but are now extinct. We know about extinct animals from fossils.

•       10: Living things are found in certain environments because they have the features that enable them to survive there. This adaptation to their environment has come about because of the small differences that occur during reproduction, resulting in some individuals being better suited to the environment than others. In the competition for materials and energy, those that are better adapted will survive and are more likely to pass on their adapted feature to their offspring.

•       8: Decomposers are essential (alongside producers and consumers) for a stable ecosystem (KS3)

•       10: The natural selection of organisms has been going since the first form of life appeared on Earth 3.5 billion years ago (KS3)

•       10. Multi-cellular organisms evolved around 2 billion years ago (KS3)

 

Spring 1

Required prior knowledge

Knowledge to be explicitly taught

How knowledge will be built upon

Substantive

•       We see shadows during the day and rainbows when there is sunshine and rain (N3-4 Aut1)

•       Light travels in straight lines (Y3)

•       We see when light enters our eyes (Y3)

•       Darkness is the absence of light (Y3)

•       Sources of light emit their own light, and others reflect light; both occur in nature as well as man-made objects (Y3)

•       Opaque, translucent and transparent materials allow no, some or all light to pass through them (Y3)

•       Shadows form behind an opaque object when light from a source is blocked (Y3)

•       The shape and position of shadows changes with the angle of the light source (Y3)

•       The size of shadows changes when the distance of the light source changes (Y3)

•       Light from the sun can be dangerous and there are ways to protect our eyes and skin. (Y3)

•       Energy can be transferred from one store to another store (Y5)

•       Fossil fuels, batteries and the Sun are all examples of chemical energy stores (Y5)

•       When energy is transferred from one store to another, it can be transferred by light or electrically (Y5)

•       When energy is removed from one store and is transferred to another store, the amount of energy in the first store goes down and the amount of energy in the second store goes up (Y5)

•       Energy is not used up; it is just moved around from store to store (Y5)

•       Light travels from the Sun to the Earth (Y5)

•       When light meets an opaque object, some of the light is reflected and some of it is absorbed

•       Shadows have the same shape as the objects that cast them because light travels in straight lines.

•       The size and shape of shadows behind an opaque object can be explained using ray diagrams

•       Objects emit (give out) or reflect light into the eye. We see things because light travels from light sources to our eyes, or from light sources to objects and then to our eyes

•       In ray diagrams, straight lines with arrows show where the energy is being transferred from and to by light

•       Objects would be invisible if they did not reflect light.

•       The eye is made of many parts: the pupil is the circular black hole in the center of the eye, the iris is the coloured part of the eye that surrounds the pupil, and the lens is a structure found behind the pupil.

•       The pupils allow light to enter the eye

•       The iris controls how much light enters the eye by changing the size of the pupil.

•       The lens helps to focus the light rays entering the eye

•       White light, which comes from most light sources we use in the classroom, contains all the colours of the visible spectrum (red, orange, yellow, green, blue, indigo, violet)

•       When a light meets a surface, some colours are absorbed and some are reflected. We see the colour(s) that are reflected

•       Objects appear black if they absorb all the colours in white light, and reflect none. Objects appear white if they reflect all the colours in white light, and absorb none

•       Many problems with our vision are caused by parts of the eye that are the not the right shape or size, or that have become cloudy.  Many of these problems can be corrected through surgery or prescription glasses

•       People living with sight loss or blindness may use long canes or guide dogs when outside, talking books or Braille, and different devices in the home

•       On a flat surface, all light meeting a surface from one direction will be reflected in the same direction. This is known as specular reflection

•       On a rough surface, light will be reflected in all directions. This is known as diffuse reflection

•       Specular reflection between mirrors allow us to see the objects that do not directly reflect light into our eyes (e.g. periscope)

•       The transmission of light through materials, to include absorption, diffuse scattering and specular reflection at a surface (KS3)

•       Light waves can travel through a vacuum they do not require a medium (KS3)

•       Light waves travel at the speed of light (KS3)

•       The similarities and differences between light waves and waves in matter (KS3)

•       Use of ray model to explain imaging in mirrors, the pinhole camera, the refraction of light and the action of a convex lens in focusing (KS3)

•       The human eye (KS3)

•       Light transferring energy from a source to an absorber leading to chemical and electrical effects; photosensitive material in the retina and in cameras (KS3)

•       Colours and the different frequencies of light, white light and prisms; differential colour effects in absorption and diffuse reflection (KS3)

DK

•       R&P: Draw a diagram, a simple scientific drawing that explains or informs

Draw ray diagrams to show how light travels and how shadows are formed

VCs

•       2: Objects can have an affect on other objects even when they are not in contact with them. Light reaches our eyes, even though the light source may be far away (Y2)

•       2: Visible light and other forms of radiation can travel through any empty space (KS3)

 

Spring 2

Required prior knowledge

Knowledge to be explicitly taught

How knowledge will be built upon

Substantive

•       Coniferous plants keep their leaves all year round; deciduous plants lose their leaves in winter (Y1)

•       The stem/trunk supports the plant and transports water up the plant. The xylem transports water and nutrients from the roots, and the phloem transports food from the leaves to the all parts of the plant (Y3)

•       Seeds can be dispersed by wind (e.g. sycamore), by animals in their droppings (e.g. things that are eaten, like a raspberry), attached to animal fur (e.g. goosegrass), or seeds can be self-propelled (pea pod) (Y3 )

•       Classification refers to a method used to place all living things into groups. Organisms can be classified in a number of ways (Y4)

•       A species is a group of one type of organism, individuals in this group can breed with each other to produce offspring that can go on to breed (Y4)

•       Fish, amphibians, reptiles, birds and mammals are all vertebrates. Vertebrates have endoskeletons (Y4)

•       Vertebrates can be grouped in a number of ways based on their characteristics, e.g. warm/cold blooded; or physical features like fur, beak, wings etc. (Y4)

•       Invertebrates can be grouped based on their characteristics as snails and slugs; worms; spiders and insects (Y4)

•       Invertebrates can be grouped based on their skeletons; endoskeletons, exoskeletons, or hydrostatic skeletons (Y4)

•       Plants can be grouped into flowering and non-flowering plants (Y4)

•       Geo: A symbiotic relationship is a long-term relationship between one or more species. Mutualism is where this both species in the relationship receive benefits  (Y4)

•       Asexual reproduction does not involve sex cells or fertilisation. Only one parent is needed, and the offspring are (genetically) identical to the parent and each other (Y5)

•       A cell is the smallest building block of living things. All organisms are made of cells (Y5)

•       Invertebrates can be grouped based on their characteristics as poriferans (sponges) cnidarians, echinoderms, molluscs, annelids, platyhelminths and arthropods

•       Arthropods can be grouped into 4 sub-groups: spiders, insects, crustaceans and myriapods).

•       Plants can be grouped into moss, ferns, conifers and flowering plants

•       Fungi are different to plants and animals. They cannot make their own food (like animals) but do not move (like plants)

•       Micro-organisms are organisms that are so small that we cannot see them with our eyes alone.

•       Some fungi are microorganisms (e.g. yeast), but not all are (e.g. mushrooms)

•       Bacteria and viruses are microorganisms.

•       Some bacteria can cause disease in other organisms

•       Some bacteria are helpful for other organisms (e.g. those that help break down food in our digestive system) and those that form part of a symbiotic relationship

•       Plants and animals are made of cells. There are similarities and differences between the cells of animals and plants. (KS3)

•       Many plant cells have chloroplasts, and this enable plants to  photosynthesise. The reactants of this process are carbon dioxide and water, and the products are sugar (glucose) and oxygen. (KS3)

•       The differences between species and how this difference can drive natural selection. (KS3)

Disciplinary

•       Gather information from text/books/images (Y2) and the internet (Y3)

•       R&P: Use a classification key to identify an object (Y4)

•       R&P: Draw a dichotomous classification key to help others identify an object (Y4)

•       R&P: Present information in a written format (Y4)

Use and draw classification keys to help classify invertebrates and plants

Research the harmful effects that bacteria can have on humans and other organisms, and present this information in a written format

VCs

•       7: Living things – organisms – need water, air, food, a way of getting rid of water and an environment that stays within a particular temperature range (Y3)

•       7: Micro-organisms are organisms that are so small that we cannot see them with our eyes alone

•       7: All organisms are made of one or more cells, which can only be seen through a microscope (KS3); All the basic functions of life – growth, reproduction, extracting energy from food – are the results  of what happens inside cells (KS3)

 

Summer 1

Required prior knowledge

Knowledge to be explicitly taught

How knowledge will be built upon

Substantive

•       Humans are made of many different body parts  (Y1)

•       Humans need exercise to stay healthy (Y2)

•       Living things move, reproduce, are sensitive to their surroundings, grow, need oxygen, get rid of their waste, and need nutrition (MRS GOWN) (Y2)

•       Humans need a balanced diet of these food groups (Y3)

•       Organs are parts of the body that do a particular job, the heart pumps blood around the body and the lungs are used for breathing which gets air into your body. (Y3)

•       Oxygen and carbon dioxide are found in the air (Y3)

•       The digestive system is the group of organs that help your body digest food (Y4)

•       Food is further broken down (chemical digestion) in the small intestines where most of the nutrients are absorbed (Y4)

•       A cell is the smallest building block of living things. All organisms are made of cells (Y5)

•       There are lots of different types of cell, which each have different purposes (Y5)

•       Living things move, reproduce, are sensitive to their surroundings, grow, respire, excrete, and need nutrition (MRS GREN)

•       Respiration provides the energy needed for organisms to function.

•       Oxygen and glucose (a sugar) are needed by cells for respiration.

•       Carbon dioxide is a waste product of respiration and needs to be excreted.

•       Blood carries oxygen, glucose, nutrients, and carbon dioxide to and from cells around the body

•       Optional: the blood is made of plasma, red blood cells, platelets and white blood cells.

•       The heart is a muscle that pumps the blood through the blood vessels.

•       Optional: the heart contains four chambers: the left and right atria and the left and right ventricles.

•       The heart pumps deoxygenated blood to the lungs, where oxygen is transferred to it, and it flows back to the heart. The heart pumps oxygenated blood to the rest of the body, where the oxygen is transferred to the organs/muscles and carbon dioxide is transferred to the blood. Deoxygenated blood then travels back to the heart to begin the process again.

•       Glucose and nutrients are absorbed by the blood along the small intestine and transported to cells in the body.

•       Arteries carry blood away from the heart. Arteries have thick walls because they carry blood from the heart which is at a high pressure. Blood is being pumped through very quickly. Arteries mostly carry oxygenated blood.

•       Veins carry blood back to the heart. They mostly carry deoxygenated blood.

•       Arteries branch into smaller blood vessels called capillaries, which are very small and supply our cells with oxygen, glucose and nutrients. Capillaries collect carbon dioxide from the cells and merge into veins.

•       The heart rate is how quickly the heart pumps. It is usually measured in beats/min. Muscles need more oxygen when they are being used in exercise, so the heart rate increases

•       Being healthy means we are in a state of physical, mental and social well being and are free from disease

•       Diet and exercise can have a positive effect on our bodies. Other lifestyle choices have an impact on our health.

•       A drug is a substance that, when taken into the body, has an effect on it. Some drugs (medicines) are helpful, and some are only harmful. All drugs are harmful when taken in the wrong quantities.

•       Tobacco smoke contains nicotine, tar and carbon monoxide. These have a damaging effect on the body.

•       The hierarchical organisation of multicellular organisms. Organisms consist of organ systems which are made of organs. Organs are a collection of different tissues and tissues are made of cells. An example being the circulatory system (KS3)

•       Aerobic respiration occurs in the cells of organisms, it involves the breakdown of organic molecules (sugar) and using oxygen (KS3)

•       The blood is oxygenated in the lungs and this is transported to the organs (and cells) that require it for aerobic respiration, along with sugar, by the blood vessels in the circulatory system (KS3)

•       Gas exchange systems in humans are adapted to their function as they have many alveoli which provides a large surface area for diffusion (KS3)

•       The mechanism of breathing moves air in and out of the lungs (KS3)

•       The role of diffusion in the movement of materials in and between cells (KS3)

•       The impact of smoking on the human gas exchange surface. (KS3)

Disciplinary

•       Mathematics: Calculate and interpret the mean (Y6)

•       A&P: Make a prediction based on substantive knowledge (Y2); A&E: Use scientific understanding to explain their findings (Y3)

•       A&P: Scientists must work out if the factor is the cause of the outcome in a correlation (Y5)

•       M&O: Taking multiple readings allows you to see if your data is repeatable and helps identify outliers (Y3)

Investigate the effect of exercise on heart rate

•       M&O: Planning to take multiple readings allows anomalous data to be identified and enables a mean to be calculated. Repeats show if our data is repeatable.

•       A&E: Calculating the mean can be used as a method of analysing data

Research effects of smoking on the human body, and how our scientific understanding has changed over time, including in the current day. The difference between correlation and cause can be discussed in relation to the move from saying smoking is bad for your health to the idea of the many disease smoking cause.

VCs

•       7: All organisms are made of one or more cells, which can only be seen through a microscope (KS3); Cells are often aggregated into tissues, tissues into organs, and organs into organ systems (KS3)

 

Summer 2

Required prior knowledge

Knowledge to be explicitly taught

How knowledge will be built upon

Substantive

•       Digestion in the human body can be chemical and mechanical (Y4)

•       Physical properties are properties that we can measure or observe in the classroom. They include electrical conductivity; melting and boiling points; thermal conductivity; being malleable; windproof; hard/soft; and magnetic (Y4)

•       Chemical properties are properties that scientists need specialist equipment to measure. They include flammability and toxicity (Y4)

•       A mixture is two or more substances, e.g. air, steel (Y5)

•       Mixtures can be made of two gases (e.g. air), two solids (e.g. steel), two liquids (e.g. squash and water), or a liquid and a solid (e.g. salt water) (Y5)

•       A solvent is a liquid that is used to dissolve other substances (Y5)

•       A reversible change is a change that can be undone, where the original substances can be recovered (Y5)

•       An irreversible change is a change that cannot be undone, where the original substances cannot be recovered (Y5)

•       A mixture is two or more substances that are mixed but not chemically joined together

•       Distillation is a separating technique that can separate a solvent from a solution. It relies on evaporation and condensation.

•       Chromatography is a separation technique in which a mixture is dissolved into a solvent, and the components of the mixture are carried by the solvents at different rates.

•       A chemical change is a change where a new substance is formed.

•       A chemical change has usually taken place if: gas bubbles appear; a new solid appears; it changes colour; or changes temperature

•       A physical change is where the substance changes its properties, but it does not become a different substance

•       Some chemical changes are irreversible, (e.g. cook an egg, rusting iron), but some can be reversed

•       Most physical changes are reversible (e.g. water to ice), but some are not (e.g. crack an egg, turn wood into sawdust)

•       Chemical reactions can be summarized using word equations.

•       Word equations show the names of the chemicals reacting and the names of the products formed.

•       In an chemical reaction mass is conserved (KS3)

•       In a chemical reaction there is a rearrangement of atoms. (KS3)

•       Chemical reactions can be represented using formulae and equations (KS3)

•       Examples of types of chemical reactions include combustion, thermal decomposition, oxidation neutralisation and displacement (KS3)

•       Reactions of acids with metals produces a salt and hydrogen (KS3)

•       Reactions of acids with alkalis produces a salt and water (KS3)

•       Reactions can be endothermic or exothermic (KS3)

Disciplinary

•       A&P: Scientists group objects or living things based on their properties (Y1)

•       A&P: Make a prediction based on substantive knowledge (Y2)

•       A&P: Scientists identify potential hazards in their experiments and plan ways to reduce them (Y2)

•       R&P: Use a Carroll diagram to classify items based on properties (Y1)

•       R&P: Use a classification key to identify an object. Draw a dichotomous classification key to help others identify an object (Y4)

•       R&P: Present information in a written format

Use a Carroll diagram to classify changes as physical/chemical and reversible/irreversible

Carry out changes and identify whether the change created is physical/chemical and reversible/irreversible

VCs

•       1: All the ‘stuff’ encountered in everyday life, including air, water and different kinds of solid substances is called matter (Y2)

•       1: Different materials are recognisable by their properties (Y2)